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May 2017
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Campaign promotes selling, planting native plants

The Indiana Native Plant and Wildflower Society and The Nature Conservancy have partnered to encourage gardeners to grow native plants. One of the ways it does this is by promoting retailers that sell the plants.

Grow Native is the statewide roll out of Go Green, Grow Native, a Monroe County initiative launched a few years ago. “We shortened the name to Grow Native and developed the website to simplify applying for the status and for sharing the Buy Native directory. We started the new version in February, and are now taking applications from around the state,” said Ellen Jacquart, an INPAWS member and former invasive plant specialist with TNC.

The idea is to recognize garden centers, nurseries and other retailers that carry native plants and to educate and encourage them to sell fewer invasive species. Retailers can sign up at for the program on two levels. A Basic member if a retailer who sells native plants. The Invasive Free retailer has agreed not to sell invasive plants, which comes with additional promotions, she said.

About 30 businesses are on the list, including two in Indianapolis – Cool Ponds and Mark M. Holeman Inc. Others listed from the area have one-time plant sales, such as INPAWS, Master Gardeners and the Indiana School for the Blind and Visually Impaired.

David Gorden, landscape architect and partner at Holeman, said he and the company have been long-time supporters of INPAWS and frequently feature native plants in their designs and installations. He finds customers are “more and more interested in native plants for their landscapes.”

Pawpaw flowers dangle amid redbuds on a spring day. (C) Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp

Although not a garden center, people can make appointments to find native plants or to have them ordered. For example, people may want the Indiana banana tree, or pawpaw (Asimina triloba), which can be hard to find, he said.

The free and voluntary program was an appealing way to start the conversation with plant sellers and educate them about the issue of invasive plants in horticulture, Jacquart said. Businesses at either level can display the Grow Native decals in their windows.

“More and more gardeners are buying native because of all the advantages these plants provide,” Jacquart said. “The Grow Native project helps put native plants in the hands of gardeners who want them.”

 

Mother’s Day converges with prime time for warm-season plants

 

A ruby-throated hummingbird enjoys the nectar of a lantana. (C) Steve Byland/Canstockphoto.com

One of the things about working at a garden center around Mother’s Day is you are busy. Really busy. It’s all about the plants.

First, Mother’s Day is considered the day warm-season plants, such as basil, tomatoes and peppers, can be planted outdoors. Normally, mid-May is when frost no longer is a threat, clearing the way for planting beans, corn and other seeds, too.

Geraniums (Pelargonium), impatiens and other summer annuals can finally go in their pots to decorate porches, stoops, patios, decks and balconies.

And then there’s Mother’s Day, when a lot of people buy plants for the women in their lives, especially moms, but others who fill that role.

I’m sure it will come as no surprise that there are people who come into a garden center mid-afternoon on Mother’s Day on a desperate search for a plant they can give as a gift. Combination pots of summer annuals and hanging baskets almost always satisfy that last-minute need. So does a blooming hydrangea, especially if it comes guilt free, meaning the recipient can enjoy it in a pot for the season and not feel bad if it dies or doesn’t get planted in the landscape.

Another last minute idea is to buy plants that attract hummingbirds or butterflies, potting mix, a pot and plant it up. It is easy peasy and you’ve created that handmade-with-love gift that makes it extra special.

If the woman being celebrated is a gardener, she probably can’t have enough gloves, especially Mud gloves, a favorite brand. They are comfortable, washable and come in many colors. Give her a couple of pair for a useful and attractive gift.

Take a look at bird feeders. Feeders are bird specific, such as certain types for hummingbirds or finches, and appropriate food for particular birds. For this, I suggest going for serviceable over cutesy. Also, make sure the feeders are easy to fill and clean. Understand how the feeder is mounted. Some can go on shepherd’s hook or hung from a hook attached to the trim of a house or garage. A feeder, equipment to hang it and a bag of seed and you’re all set with a gift of nature’s finest entertainment.

Happy Mother’s Day!

Let kids get their hands dirty

Young girl watering the vegtable garden with a hose. (C) Fotolia

The first time I grew vegetables, the harvest was more than the bounty.

That was the summer my then six-year-old son, Ben, learned the difference between flower, flour, plants and power plants.

His questions revealed how his mind worked and what he’d picked up in the news. We lived in Southern Indiana at the time and Marble Hill, a now defunct nuclear-powered generating plant, was in the headlines. I loved talking to him at the kitchen counter about such heady stuff, even if he was only six.

That also was the summer I learned dozens of ways to cook zucchini, which thankfully, was Ben’s favorite vegetable.

Many kids find gardening fun, especially when they grow food and flowers they like. And some plants are just plain fun to grow not matter what your age.

When working with kids, get them involved from the start, asking for their input for planning the garden and what kinds of seeds and plants they’d like to try.

It’s easy to wimp out in mid-summer when weeds are high and the days are hot, but gardening teaches us about responsibility and commitment, no matter who needs the lessons.

Fulfilling responsibilities is the reason to start small. Don’t dig up more than you can handle.

Here are a few edible suggestions to whet a kid’s appetite:

*Carrots and beans. Both are easy to grow and rewarding for youngsters. Beans grow on bush-type plants or vines and both are great for kids. Make a teepee with sticks from the yard or inexpensive bamboo stakes for beans and other climbers. Make the teepee large enough and children will have a seasonal playhouse. Some beans have incredibly beautiful pods, including purple, striped and pink.

*Pumpkins and watermelons. Jack ’o lantern styles for carving, ‘Baby Bear,’ ‘Wee-Be-Little’ and ‘Jack Be Little’ are great pumpkin varieties for kids to grow. For a watermelon, try ‘Sugar Baby.’

*Pizza garden. Tomato, basil, parsley can be grown in the ground or in a large container. A five-gallon or larger bucket works great as a pizza pot. Just punch holes in the bottom for drainage. Don’t use soil from the garden in the pot. Use a good potting soil or soilless mix.

May garden checklist

 

Indoors

  • Move houseplants to a shady location outdoors when danger of frost has past, usually mid-May. The soil in the pots will dry out faster outdoors, so check it frequently.

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  • Take cuttings from houseplants to increase collection or share. Root cuttings in media such as vermiculite, perlite or potting soil.
  • Fertilize houseplants according to label directions.

General landscape

  • Prune early spring-flowering trees and shrubs after flowers fade.
  • Plant balled-and-burlapped or container nursery stock; water thoroughly.
  • Remove and destroy bagworms from trees and shrubs.
  • Mow lawn as needed to height of 3 1/2 or 4 inches.
  • Allow foliage of spring-flowering bulbs to ripen and yellow or brown before cutting back. Leaves make the food reserves stored in the bulbs that bring next year’s flowers. Divide or transplant spring-flowering bulbs after they’ve finished blooming. Mark empty spaces in the landscape to show where to plant spring-flowering bulbs next fall.
  • Begin organic rose care.
  • Divide or transplant perennials.
  • Plant tender ornamentals after danger of frost is past. This includes most annual flowers and tender perennials, such as cannas, gladiolus, dahlias, tuberous begonias and caladiums.
  • Mulch garden beds.
  • Pinch late-blooming perennials, such as chrysanthemums and asters, and certain annuals to keep them compact and well branched.
  • Stay on top of the weeds by pulling them as soon as you see them, once a week, after a rain, or whatever works on with schedule.

Vegetables and Fruits

  • Once there is no threat of frost, usually by mid-May, plant tender plants such as tomatoes, corn, peppers, eggplant, vine crops
  • Make successive plantings of beans and sweet corn to extend the harvest.
  • Thin seedlings of early-planted crops to spacing specified on seed packet or plant tag.
  • Harvest early plantings of radishes, spinach and lettuce.
  • Harvest asparagus by cutting or snapping spears at or just below soil level.
  • Harvest rhubarb by cutting, or grasp stalk and pull it slightly to one side.
  • Remove blossoms from newly set strawberry plantsto allow better runner formation.
  • Remove unwanted suckers in raspberries when new shoots are about a foot tall.
  • Begin organic practices in growing your apples. Thin fruit on apple trees to 8 inches apart about three weeks after their flower petals fall.

 

Spring rush challenges gardeners. Is your community having a garden tour?

Photo courtesy Netherlands Flower Bulb Information Center

It’s been spring at the speed of light.

Just like magical gardens, lots of plants are blooming at the same time, rather than staggering their show over several weeks.

Don’t be fooled into planting warm-season plants, such as geraniums, begonias, tomatoes and peppers, outdoors just yet. I know that’s a hard sell when we’ve just come through a slew of days in the 70- and 80-degree range. But as I write this it’s a mere 45 F. Ah, Indiana weather.

Tomatoes and peppers like it hot. When planted in cold soil they will just sit there and do nothing except possibly wither their roots. The normal planting day for warm-season plants is May 10. There’s been recent research that peppers, which like it even hotter than tomatoes, do better when planted more toward the end of May, when the soil has warmed up even more.

If you feel compelled to plant warm-season plants now, do so in pots so they can be moved indoors at night when temps in the 40s threaten.

Read the label

There’s a new Roundup in town. After decades of telling gardeners that Roundup, with a main chemical of glyphosate, is non-selective, which means it will kill any herbaceous plant, such as grass, weeds, perennials and annuals. It can also damage trees and shrubs if they are hit with the chemical.

Despite being clearly labeled as a weed and grass killer, there are hundreds, if not thousands of stories of how people killed their lawns with this product, thinking they were spraying to kill only the weeds..

Enter Roundup For Lawns, which is labeled kills weeds, not the lawn. Unlike other lawn-weed herbicides, this one is labeled for spot treatment rather than spraying the whole lawn.

You still need to be careful with this product when it comes to perennials, annuals and other desirable plants. Lawn-weed herbicides don’t recognize the difference between blades of grass and ornamental plants. And, many lawn-weed herbicides can be harmful to trees and shrubs.

As we should all know, always read and follow the label directions.

Garden tours

If your community is having a garden tour this year, please let me know by May 8 for an article in The Indianapolis Star. Tell me how many gardens are on the tour, if it’s a fundraiser, where to buy tickets, website and who to contact. Please send info to me at the email below.

Science is a big part of a well-maintained lawn

A lot of science (and work) make up a well-maintained lawn. (C) Dollarphotoclub.

We’re moving into the gardening season, so let’s talk about the lawn. For a lot of people, that’s what gardening season is: Mowing the lawn, fertilizing it, watering it, worrying about insects and disease, and killing weeds that show up amid the grass.

What if I told you that you had to grow a plant that was never allowed to flower, that needed constant pruning and demanded a lot of fertilizer and water. Would you put that plant in your garden? That’s the lawn.

I readily admit I have a love-hate relationship with the lawn. I love the way rich, green grass defines landscaped areas, serving as the perfect backdrop for flowers, trees and shrubs. But the pressure to keep the lawn weed free, lush and beautiful is sometimes overwhelming.

If you are interested in selling your house, forget the bath and kitchen remodel. The National Association of Realtors ranked seeding lawn the highest, recovering 417 percent of the project cost at resale. That’s followed by implementing a standard lawn care program (303 percent of cost recovered), and updating landscaping with sod (143 percent recovered), as the most cost-effective projects.

Nearly seven in 10 Americans who have a lawn say theirs could use improvement, according to research by the National Association of Lawn Care Professionals. A lot of people don’t realize that there’s science behind controlling weeds, insects and diseases in the lawn, as well as watering and mowing. Here are some tips for the season:

  • Water the lawn deeply every few days rather than daily. This encourages the grass to develop deep roots, which enable the lawn to withstand drought, insects and disease problems.
  • Mow high. I’m sure you’ve heard that before. Keeping the lawn at about 3 inches tall shades out opportunistic weed seeds from taking hold and it cools the grass roots.
  • Don’t remove the grass clippings when you mow. Leaving the clipping on the lawn eliminates at least one application of fertilizer.
  • Learn the best times to control weeds, insects and disease. Knowing the lifecycle of insects, such as grubs, means that an insecticide will be applied at the correct time to control the pest.
  • It’s generally considered better to treat broadleaf weeds, such as dandelions, in late September into October. An herbicide applied then is more readily taken up by the plant.

If you work with a lawn service, consider asking the crew to eliminate the spring fertilization, especially if there was a fall application of fertilizer. The lawn is going to grow anyway and fertilizer in spring increases mowing duties. If you do it yourself, always read and follow the directions of the product you use.

Consider working with a lawn care company that uses organic products and sustainable practices. Several people I know use Total Lawn Care, which has been around since 1989 with its organic lawn care program. Another is Natural Lawn. Talk to other lawn care companies to see if organic options are available.

Sometimes you just need to rant. And rave.

A Rant

Trees are coming down all along the White River levee on Indianapolis’ north side. It’s a sad, unsettling scene. Under direction of the Army Corps of Engineers, the trees are being removed to protect the levee.

Trees are being removed from the White River levee. (C) Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp

The trees, all volunteers, probably should never have been allowed to take root there. But no one warned the bald eagles, great horned owls or songbirds that for decades have nested along the river. This spring, their homes have been destroyed, seemingly without any consideration about the nests or bird families’ well being. Normally, arborists take into account bird-nesting habits when pruning or removing trees,.

To add insult to injury, the tree-removing crews are leaving the honeysuckle bushes. The shrubs will continue their extremely invasive habits along the levee (and into our yards). On the state’s invasive species list, these Asian shrubs leaf out very early and hold their leaves very late, shrouding any native species that might replenish the slopes of the levee and riverbank. Birds eat the berries and help spread the plant by dropping seeds.

The crews have preserved a line of trees at the river’s edge, for which I’m grateful. But I’ll miss the hoots of the great horned owls that stood guard in the big sycamore tree I could see from my house, as I walked to get the morning paper. I can only hope they will return some day.

A Rave

Several years ago, the Indianapolis Museum of Art had the slogan: Art Inside and Out. I loved it because I felt like it acknowledged the gardens as part of the art.

Spring Blooms, an outdoor exhibit at the Indianapolis Museum of Art, continues through May. Photo courtesy Irvin Etienne

There’s no doubt about the gardens as art anymore. The gardens are the exhibit with Spring Blooms: Celebration of Color. More than 150,000 spring-blooming bulbs were planted last fall. This spring, they were paired with 23,000 cool-season annuals, such as pansies and snapdragons. Dozens of perennials, including the eye-catching lime green ‘Citronelle’ coral bell (Heuchera) enhance the color and texture of the plantings. Forty-five new, large, beautifully planted pots adorn the gardens, too.

Opening weekend brought in at least 3,000 visitors, and about 300 joined the museum, boosting membership to more than 16,000, said Charles Venable, chief executive officer at the IMA.

What can gardeners learn from this exhibit? That there are early, mid- and late-season tulips, daffodils and other bulbs. By selecting a mix, we can extend the spring color in our landscapes. And because bulbs, annuals and perennials bloom successively, the beauty should last through May 31, when the exhibit ends.

Spring Blooms is free for IMA members; nonmembers, $18. There are reduced rates for students and others (http://bit.ly/2ozFGKA ).

Bisons aid in restoration of Kankakee Sands

Bisons return to Indiana’s Kankakee Sands.

A lot of Midwesterners, including many Hoosiers, think Indiana was a great prairie state. It wasn’t. Rather, about 98 percent of Indiana was hardwood forest, which gave way to agriculture as the state developed.

Indiana wasn’t totally without prairie though, and probably the most significant area is in the northwestern part of the state. There you’ll find the easternmost swatches of the great tallgrass prairie sprawled into Indiana from northeast Illinois, the Prairie State.

This section of Indiana was in the news last fall when, after the long ride from South Dakota, 23 bison bounded from a truck onto the Kankakee Sands in Newton County.

At the time I thought how cool that was, especially since the bison appears on the Seal of the State of Indiana. Not until recently, did I learn that the bisons are an integral part of the restoration of the prairie at Kankakee Sands, an 8,000-acre property of The Nature Conservancy-Indiana.

Alyssa Nyberg, nursery manager and outreach coordinator at Kankakee Sands.

Bisons prefer to eat grasses and sedges rather than flowering plants, such as rattlesnake master (Eryngium yuccifolium) and gayfeather (Liatris spp.), said Alyssa Nyberg, Kankakee Sands’ nursery manager and outreach coordinator. That means there will be more flowers for birds, bees and other fauna to enjoy. Bisons also sand wallow “to rub off of all the itchy things,” she said. When they do, they create indentations in the sands where water can gather to support other creatures, including frogs and tadpoles, and to quench the thirst of birds.

Nyberg spoke recently at Butler University’s Friesner Herbarium’s annual open house. A graduate of Indianapolis’ Chatard High School, Nyberg holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees in environmental science from Indiana University. After two years in the Peace Corps in Nepal, Nyberg returned to Indiana to work at Kankakee Sands,

There she, staffers and volunteers collect. clean and sow the seeds of 600 prairie plant species. About 2,000 pounds of seeds are needed for about 500 acres. Some seeds are sown directly and some are sown in a greenhouse to be transplanted later. The goal is to restore the ecological habitat that thrived there 300 years ago.

The Efroymson Restoration at Kankakee Sands has turned fields of corn and soybeans into biodiverse corridors for some of the rarest species in the state, said Ellen Jacquart, who retired recently as the director of Northern Indiana Stewardship for The Nature Conservancy.

At the 2014 flora and fauna census, The Nature Conservancy recorded the species of 930 moths, 70 butterflies, 40 ants, 250 birds and 155 bees, and more than more than 700 plants.

Regal fritillary on bee balm at Kankakee Sands. Photo courtesy Derek Luchik/nature.org

“It gives me hope for the future, if we are willing to commit to restoration. The coolest thing I’ve seen at Kankakee Sands was the explosion of state-endangered regal fritillary butterflies in 2014. Hundreds of gorgeous butterflies flying through the restoration, proving we had successfully made a home for them.”

Kankakee Sands is open year-round to the public for birding, counting butterflies, learning about wildflowers and watching bisons.

More than pansies for spring pots

The tissue paper-like balls of ranunculus flowers work well with violas and pansies. © Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp

We all love pansies and violas in spring, but did you know there are a lot more cool-season annuals and tender perennials we can use in our seasonal containers? Because most trees and shrubs are not fully leafed out, there’s less concern about sun requirements for these plants, too. These are plants we have for the season because they tend to stop blooming once the weather heats up. Here’s a sampler of plants that thrive in spring temperatures.

‘Jenny Brooks’ wallflower. Photo courtesy Aris Horticulture

Wallflower (Erysimum), although technically a perennial, it’s unlikely these fragrant beauties will survive winter here. Wallflowers, which come in lots of colors, add height to pots, window boxes and other seasonal arrangements. Extremely popular in England, wallflowers are not as readily available here in the U.S., but check with area garden centers. The lovely ‘Jenny Brooks’ can sometimes be found in the perennial section. Wallflower is a member of the Brassica family, the same as cabbage. The National Garden Bureau has named 2017 the Year of the Brassicas, so celebrate with one of the more fragrant members of the clan.

Column Miracle White stock. Photo courtesy Ball Horticulture

Stocks (Matthiola incana), sometimes called gillyflowers, are an annual whose spicy fragrance is a staple of many perfumes. These pastel-colored flowers are easy to grow from seed sown indoors in late winter, and they are a bit easier to find in garden centers than wallflowers. Like wallflowers, stocks add height to containers.

Snapdragons (Antirrhinum majus) are a lot more familiar, but maybe not as a spring annual. Snapdragons come in lots of colors and can be found in the summer garden, too. The tall ones, such as the Rocket series, add height to containers, serving nicely as a centerpiece. ‘Floral Showers’, ‘Montego’ and ‘Magic Carpet’ are shorter and work well when two or three plants are bunched together for a better show.

Montego Yellow snapdragon. Photo courtesy Ball Horticulture

The tissue paper-like, ball-shaped flowers of ranunculus (R. asiaticus) offer a different texture and form in pots. Ranunculus grows from tubers, which can be started indoors in late winter. Each tuber yields many flowers in many pastels, reds and oranges. These are usually available at garden centers beginning in April. These are less tolerant of temperatures below about 50 F.

The daisy-like flowers of Senetti come in many colors. Photo courtesy Senetti.com

Another beauty, commonly branded as Senetti (Pericallis x hybrida), is also a bit sensitive to freezing temperatures, but worth planting when it’s consistently a bit warmer in mid-April. This is usually sold in 6- or 8-inch pots in garden centers. Plant Senetti in the ground or use as a focal point in a pot or window box. The colors are divine, especially the blues. It also comes in white, pinks and bicolor.

April garden checklist

Indoors

  • Prune, repot and clean houseplants as needed.houseplant-window-stockxpertcom_id848849_size2
  • Fertilize houseplants as new growth appears. Follow label directions.
  • If not done already, sketch garden plans, including what to grow, spacing, arrangement and number of plants needed.
  • Order seeds and plants as early as soon as possible.
    Cyclamen. (C) iStockphoto
  • Place Easter lily, florist azalea, cyclamen and other seasonal flowering plants in bright, indirect sunlight. Keep soil moist.
  • Pot up summer flowering bulbs to be transplanted outdoors later, including tuberous begonias, caladiums and cannas.
  • Start seeds of warm-season plants, including tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, marigolds, zinnias and petunias for planting outdoors in mid-May.
Cyclamen. (C) iStockphoto

Cyclamen. (C) iStockphoto

General Landscape

  • Fertilize woody plants before new growth begins.
  • Complete pruning to remove dead and injured branches from trees and shrubs. Prune spring flowering shrubs, such as forsythia or lilacs, within a month after blooming.
  • Mow grass as needed to 3 1/2- to 4-inches tall.
  • Remove winter-damaged ground covers with trimmers or shears.
  • Divide or transplant hardy perennials.
  • Allow foliage of spring-flowering bulbs to ripen and yellow or brown before cutting back. Leaves make the food reserves stored in the bulbs that bring next year’s flowers. Divide or transplant spring-flowering bulbs after they’ve finished blooming. Mark empty spaces in the landscape to show where to plant spring-flowering bulbs next fall.
  • Harden off transplants started indoors earlier by gradually exposing young plants to outdoor conditions of wind, sunlight and lower moisture.
  • Remove winter covering from roses. Keep mulch nearby to use on plants in case of late freezes. Prune and fertilize as needed.

Vegetables and Fruits

  • Sow seeds for cool-season crops, including peas, lettuce, spinach, carrots, beets, turnips, parsnips and Swiss chard, directly in the garden as soon as soil can be worked. Soil should crumble instead of forming a ball when squeezed.

    Mesclun seedlings can be transplanted outdoors anytime or the seeds can be sown directly in the garden. Photo courtesy National Garden Bureau

    Mesclun seedlings can be transplanted outdoors anytime or the seeds can be sown directly in the garden. Photo courtesy National Garden Bureau

  • Plant seedlings of cool-season crops, such as broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi and onions.
  • Plant asparagus and rhubarb crowns. (Do not harvest until three years after planting.)
  • Plant certified, disease-free potato sections or seed tubers.
  • Plant strawberries, raspberries and other small fruit.
  • Remove winter mulch from strawberries, but keep it handy in case late frosts threaten and to keep weeds down.
  • Prune grape vines to remove dead or weakened limbs. Repair trellises as needed.
  • Apply a pre-bloom, multipurpose orchard spray to fruit trees.