Butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa). Photo courtesy PerennialResource.com
The Indiana Native Plant and Wildflower Society has launched an initiative to declare butterfly weed as the state’s official wildflower.
Society members plan to spend the 2017 session walking statehouse halls to promote a bill that elevates the status of the native perennial, a critical plant in the lifecycle of monarch butterflies.
The peony, an import from Asia, is the official state flower, and there are no plans to change that, said Davie Sue Wallace, vice president of INPAWS. Several states have state flowers and state wildflowers, including Michigan, Ohio, Oklahoma and Florida.
INPAWS criteria for this selection: It needed to be garden worthy in performance and size; it needed to be found in the wild throughout Indiana; it needed to be a plant that retailers and wholesalers would be interested in; and it needed to be a plant of interest to children for educational purposes. Butterfly weed won by a long shot, said Wallace of Evansville, 10-year member of INPAWS.
She met with Republican Sens. Vaneta Becker and David Long the day before Thanksgiving to begin the process. Becker will likely craft the bill, Wallace said.
“It has been very challenging to do this during the holidays. But this just seems like the right year,” Wallace said.
To support Senate Bill 470, email or write Becker and Long and the representatives and senators from your area, Wallace said.
Butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa) has become a very popular perennial the last several years, primarily because of its value as a food plant in the monarch butterfly’s lifecycle. A member of the milkweed family, butterflies slurp nectar from the bright orange flowers. Monarchs lay her eggs on milkweeds, which hatch and the larva eat the leaves before pupating and turning into butterflies. The Asclepias family is the only food plant for the caterpillars.
The loss of natural habitats of butterfly weed has prompted gardeners, municipalities, highway departments, parks and others to plant the perennial as a way to support monarchs, whose numbers have seen sharp decline over the last decade.
Coincidentally, butterfly weed is the 2017 Perennial Plant of the Year, so named by the Perennial Plant Association, a trade association of breeders, growers, horticulturists and educators.
Grow butterfly weed in full sun and well-drained soil. Once established, the plant, which gets about 2 feet tall and wide, is drought tolerant. The flowers and seed heads are great for bouquets. Deadhead the plant to reduce self-sowing.
Purple Sprouting Broccoli. Photo courtesy National Garden Bureau/ngb.org
A lot of us already know about red and white cabbage, but what about purple broccoli or orange cauliflower?
Those are some members of the brassica family of plants, which also includes Brussels sprouts, kale, collards, mustards, kohlrabi, radish, rutabaga, turnip and Chinese cabbage.
Foodies are in love with these vegetables, known for their strong aroma when cooked and their high nutritional value. They also taste good. My favorites are broccoli, Brussels sprouts and cabbages.
The resurgence of interest in these old-fashion vegetables has prompted the National Garden Bureau, a trade group that promotes growing plants, to name 2017 the Year of the Brassica.
The family members sometimes are referred to as cole crops, an English adaptation of caulis, Latin for stem. Or you may hear them called cruciferous, which refers to their four-petaled flowers that resemble a cross.
Cheddar or orange cauliflower. Photo courtesy National Garden Bureau/ngb.org
These are usually planted as transplanted in early spring for summer harvest. Some, such as broccoli and mustards, can be planted again in July for harvesting in fall and early winter.
Probably the biggest consideration to growing these plants is their susceptibility to insect damage, especially from cabbageworms and flea beetles. Many gardeners cover these plants with row covers to help control the insects. These plants should be grown in full sun and well-drained soil. They are fairly drought tolerant once established.
Each type of plant has different growing habits and horticultural requirements, so follow the seed packet instructions, plant labels or other sources, including Purdue University’s Vegetable Gardening Tips. Of course, if you don’t want to grow these vegetables, you can still celebrate their year by purchasing them at farmers markets, which is where I usually get mine. Here’s one of my favorite, easy dishes.
Roasted Brussels sprouts
Clean and trim the Brussels sprouts and pat them dry with paper towel or clean cloth. Place sprouts on a baking sheet, but don’t crowd them. Drizzle with olive oil and season with kosher salt and fresh-ground pepper. Using your hands or spatula, coat the Brussels sprouts with the oil and seasoning. Roast in 400 F oven 30 to 45 minutes, or until tender. Turn the sprouts every 10 minutes or so. Serve as they are as a vegetable side dish, or sprinkle the sprouts with shredded Parmesan, pierce them with a toothpick and serve as an hors d’ oeuvres.
Roasted Brussel Sprouts with Salt and Pepper. (C) bhofack2/iStockphoto.com
Happy New Year! Now that we’re headed into 2017, it’s time to spend a few quiet weeks, stowing energy for the winter season and perhaps entertaining ourselves by learning something new. Here are a few books to consider:
Rantings of a Mad Botanist: A Comprehensive Guide to Gardening and Land Use Practices Emphasizing Central Indiana (Mad Botanist Publications, hardcover, 456 pages, $45) by Bill N. McKnight sounds a lot more scholarly than it is. Ok, McKnight, editor of special publications at the Indiana Academy of Science, a former biology teacher and museum curator, is scholarly, but his book is not.
Rantings perfectly conveys McKnight’s philosophy and methods of tending his 3-acres on Indianapolis’ north east side, spiced with his typical dry and thought provoking humor.
This 3.2 pounder does not contain beautiful plant photograph, but rather is illustration with charts, graphs and a few drawings. The front part of the book gives all the basics a gardener needs. The latter part provides lists of plants in groups, such as trees, succulents, shade, tall and thin, night gardens and more. The book is self-published and can be found at themadbotanist.com.
Jill Jonnes’ Urban Forests: A Natural History of Trees and People in the American Cityscape (Viking, hardcover, 396 pages, $32) takes us through the good, bad and ugly of trees in our culture. She takes us from Thomas Jefferson’s pastoral setting to today’s heat island effect and invasion of devastating Asian beetles.
She reminds us of environmentalist John Muir and introduces us to John Davey, known as the Tree Doctor, who founded Davey Tree Expert Company in 1880, and tells us how Arbor Day became a national event.
The Downsized Veggie Garden: How to Garden Small – Wherever You Live, Whatever Your Space by former Hoosier Kate Copsey (St. Lynn’s Press, hardcover, 192 pages, $19.95) is an encouraging how-to manage your food gardening. Copsey, who now lives in New Jersey, takes us through the seasons with what to plant when, tips for success, plant selection and more, all with a non-chemical approach.
Also from St. Lynn’s Press is Late Bloomer: How to Garden with Comfort, Ease and Simplicity in the Second Half of Life (hardcover, 144 pages, $18.95) by Jan Coppola Bills, who owns a Michigan garden design and installation company.
“If you’re curious to know what so different about gardening to this half, I’d say it’s all about a shift in perspective. Instead of a drive to completion and outcome and control, it’s now about a more deeply soul-pleasing way of gardening,” writes Bills.
Coat a pinecone with peanut butter, then roll it in bird seed or nuts and hang in your discarded Christmas tree. (C) Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp
In the next few days, you’ll be hauling out your fresh-cut Christmas tree, and may wonder what to do next.
Between Monday and Jan. 31, you can take your un-decorated, de-tinseled tree, free of fake snow and plastic bag, to one of nine Indy Parks. From there, it goes to GreenCycle for making mulch or other recycled, sustainable product. You can find a listing of where your can recycle or dispose of trees in other communities throughout Indiana at Pick Your Own Christmas Tree.
You can cut the tree and branches into 3-4 foot long bundles and leave for heavy trash pickup, if allowed by your municipality. Or, cut the tree and season the wood to burn in the fireplace.
Use the tree for soil erosion around lakes and ponds, or if privately owned, dump it into the water to create a fish habitat.
Move the tree to the backyard to make a seasonal feeder and shelter for birds. Decorate it with pine cones rolled in peanut butter, nuts or birdseed. Hang fresh fruit, such as oranges or apple, or strings of popcorn or dried fruit in the tree. Brace it against another tree, fence or post.
Also in the backyard, the tree can be used as a wind break for flowerbeds or tender shrubs. Cut the boughs and place them around small shrubs, perennials or other plants, especially those spending the winter in pots.
Winter safety for people, pets, plants
With the recent snow and icy weather, remember to use caution when applying de-icers on sidewalks, driveways, porch steps or other pavement adjacent to lawn or beds that have been planted with flowers, trees and shrubs.
Clearing the pavement of snow frequently eliminates or reduces the need for de-icers. Products containing sodium chloride, or salt, can be harmful to plants. I opt for de-icers labeled for use around plants and pets. Always apply according to label directions.
Ten reasons to buy The Indiana Gardener’s Guide:
- It’s the perfect gift for gardeners of all skill levels.
- It’s the perfect gift for new homeowners, who may be wondering about their lawns, trees, perennials and annuals in their landscape. Written so that beginners can understand.
- Solid, practical information about gardening in Indiana. No gimmicks. Information you can trust.
- Symbols give tips on a plant’s attributes, such as native, cut flower, low water needs, fragrant, good for bees and butterflies.
- Offers suggestions for companion plants.
- Easy to use.
- Reasonable price.
- Limited supply. When the books are gone, they are gone.
- Signed copy for no extra charge.
- You can pay via PayPal, check, charge or cash.
$15, includes $3 shipping/handling. Order by Dec. 19 to ensure delivery by the holidays. Email Jo Ellen with your phone number for details, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Guacamole hosta. Photo courtesy PerennialResource.com
Finally, a Pantone Color of the Year that actually works in the landscape and we don’t even have to wait for the hue to drench the pots and other accessories because it is already with us.
Pantone’s 2017 selection is greenery. What could be more natural than that?
“Greenery is a fresh and zesty yellow-green shade that evokes the first days of spring when nature’s greens revive, restore and renew. Illustrative of flourishing foliage and the lushness of the great outdoors, the fortifying attributes of Greenery signals consumers to take a deep breath, oxygenate and reinvigorate. Greenery is nature’s neutral,” said Pantone, one of the country’s best-known arbiters of color, in announcing its choice.
Our landscape has greenery, in the form of the leaves of plants and the branches of evergreens. Why our landscapes already are fashion forward. If you’d like to emphasize the 2017 Color of the Year in the garden, here are some suggestions:
Electric Lime coleus. Photo courtesy Ball Horticulture
Coleus (Plectranthus scultellarioides) is the perfect annual foliage plant. Many varieties are quite tolerant of sun and others thrive in shade. Among many to consider are Cool Vibes Mellow from Terra Nova Nurseries and Electric Lime from Ball Horticulture. For a dramatic look as a centerpiece or backdrop in a pot or among other plants, consider the striped foliage of Bengal Tiger canna, grown as an annual. The fact that it has orange-red flowers is a bonus.
In the perennial category, coral bells (Heuchera) are good starters, frequently tolerating sun or shade. Look for Lime Ruffles, Key Lime or Electric Lime (yes, another one, but a different plant than Electric Lime coleus). ‘Guacamole’ hosta has apple green leaves edged in darker green. It will get about 3 feet wide and tall and does best in shade to part shade.
Double Gold spirea. Photo courtesy Proven Winners/ColorChoice Plants
Double Play Gold spirea (Spiraea) from Proven Winners ColorChoice, has pink flowers on and off throughout the summer. Leaves have lime-gold-green hues. This low-maintenance, mounded shrub gets18-24 inches tall and 16-24 inches wide, making it a good choice as an anchor or specimen in a sunny, perennial flowerbed.
Collapsible wheelbarrow. Photo courtesy Carol Michel/MayDreamsGardens.com
If there’s a first-time homeowner in your group of family and friends, here are some holiday gift suggestions that will make their yard work a breeze. Gardeners also would appreciate these tools.
Lawn mower. If the yard is small, go for an electric mower. I recommend the cordless type, which is much easier to use around flowerbeds. I speak from the experience of having run over the mower cord twice before replacing the machine with a battery-operated model. I’ve had two Black & Deckers (with and without cord) and recently purchased a Neuton. Make sure it’s a mulching mower, which cuts grass clippings (and leaves) into tiny bits, returning them to the ground where they add nutrients to the soil.
Shovel. Although we use shovel and spade interchangeably, they are two different tools. A shovel has a pointed end and a bowl-shaped blade. It sort of looks like a spade found on playing cards. Among tools, though, a spade has a straight edge and is usually smaller and narrower than a shovel. Each can be used for digging. The spade is a great tool for edging beds.
Garden fork. This is probably my favorite digging tool. It is especially efficient for digging in heavy soil. The tines help break up chunks of soil.
Clippers. Start with hand snips or clippers. Corona, Fiskars and Felco are quality brands to consider. Clippers come as bypass or anvil types. Bypass models work like scissors and anvils cut on a flat, metal surface. Opt for bypass clippers because they make a clean cut of branches or stems of flowers, rather than crimping or smashing them.
Pruning tools. A lopper, especially with telescoping handles, can be used to cut branches 1 inch diameter or larger, depending on the model. Loppers also can be used to cut back woody perennials, such as hydrangeas, and shrubs.
Wheelbarrow. There are several types, with most common being the traditional model with a metal or plastic bowl. The weakest part of this type is the tire, so consider getting one with a solid rubber tire rather than one that needs air. There also are collapsible, lightweight models, such as WheelEasy from allsopgarden.com or amazon.com, which would be a good choice for those without a lot of storage space.
Rakes. There are two basic types – a garden or bow rake with downward facing tines about 3 inches long, and a leaf rake, which is usually fan shaped. A garden rake is used to smooth out the soil or spread mulch, and the tines help break up clumps of soil. The leaf rake is lighter weight and does what its name implies.
Evergreen boughs cascade over the edges of a winter pot. A white birch log and faux holly berries add spot color. © Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp
This is my favorite time of year, not because of the holidays or the weather, but because of the plants we have to work with.
Plants include branches, seed heads, ornaments and other elements we snip from the landscape or buy at garden centers, nurseries, farmers markets, grocers and other retailers.
The textures, forms and shades of evergreen branches pair wonderfully with red- or yellow-stem dogwoods, willows, birch branches, boxwood, stems of Russian sage or the dried flowers of hydrangeas.
Poke plants in the soil of an all-weather container on the porch, balcony or patio, by the mailbox, at the end of the driveway, in view of the kitchen window or in a flowerbed. If you’ve already emptied soil from the pot, fill it with mulch and poke away.
Pots with greenery are easy to assembly. You can start in the center and build out or start on the edges and build in. If the pot will be seen from all sides, put the tallest branches in the middle. If seen from one side, but them at the back.
For the edges of the container, use evergreen branches that drape, such as incense cedar, western cedar or other arborvitae. If using branches that naturally bend upward, such as Douglas fir, Fraser fir or pine, invert them so they bend down to cover the edge of the pot. Fir branches tend to be blue on the underside and green on the top, which add another color and texture to the mix.
For the center, branches of curly willow, dogwood and birch do the trick. Spray paint brown branches red, green, silver, gold or other colors to compliment the pot or home. Cut branches of hollies also work nicely as a centerpiece.
Leave dried hydrangea blooms tan or brown for a more natural look, or spray paint them red, gold or other colors and use as filler. Fill in with salal, huckleberry or branches from evergreens. Or use faux branches of hollies, strands of shiny beads, plastic ornaments and other glittery items from craft stores and other retailers. Attach a wired weatherproof ribbon or bow for a festive look.
The nice thing about winter arrangements in containers is you don’t have to actually plant or water anything. Just stick the branches or stems in the soil. It’s easy to pull them out to rearrange and fill in any empty spots.
Once the holidays have passed, remove reds and other colors. Some of the greenery will hold its color well into early spring and some will turn brown. In my mind, the pots still look attractive because of the hues and textures.
- When shopping for a fresh-cut Christmas tree, check for green, flexible, firmly held needles and a sticky trunk base — both indicators of freshness. Make a fresh cut and keep the cut end under water at all times.
- Evergreens can be trimmed gently for indoor holiday decorations.
- Houseplants usually require less water and fertilizer during the winter, but they need more light. Move plants closer to windows (but not touching glass) when days are gray.
- Store lawn and garden products in a cool, dry place, protected from moisture and freezing, but away from heat.
- Prevent the bark from splitting on young, thin-barked trees, such as fruit and maple, by wrapping them with tree wrap, or paint them with white latex paint, especially the south and south-west sides.
- Protect broadleaves, evergreens or other tender landscape plants from excessive drying (desiccation) by winter sun and wind with canvas, burlap or polyethylene plastic screens on the south and west sides. Shields also may be used to protect plants from salt spray.
- Protect weak-stemmed shrubs from extensive snow loads by tying their stems together with twine. Carefully remove heavy snow loads with a broom so limbs don’t break.
Plants have been protected with burlap. Photo courtesy Missouri Botanical Garden
- If needed, protect young plants, broadleaves and needle-bearing evergreens and other tender landscape plants from excessive drying from sun and wind by spraying with an antidesiccant when temperatures are above 40 degrees F. Always read and follow the label direction.
- Mulch tender plants with organic material when they become dormant.
Vegetables and Fruits
- Harvest root crops. Store in a cold location with high humidity.
Marian University’s Friends of Riverdale wants to raise $1.5 million to restore a portion of Jens Jensen’s landscape at Allison Mansion, including rebuilding the colonnade and arbor.
Photo courtesy Browning Day Mullins Dierdorf/Marian University
We all know about Black Friday, Small Business Saturday and Cyber Monday, but have you heard about Giving Tuesday? This year it’s Nov. 29.
With the holidays coming sooner rather than later, here’s a way to celebrate by giving to non-profit organizations that support gardening, nature, historical landscapes and flowers.
Indiana Landmarks’ Cultural Landscape Committee identifies, catalogues and helps promote the state’s significant landscapes, such as George Kessler’s boulevard, parkways and parks; landscape architect’s Dan Kiley’s designs in Fort Wayne and Columbus, the Olmsted Brothers’-designed gardens on the IUPUI campus and at the Indianapolis Museum of Art.
Donations can be made to Indiana Landmarks Cultural Landscape Committee, 1201 N. Central Ave., Indianapolis, IN 46202, or online. In the online comments section, write Cultural Landscape Committee.
Native plant enthusiasts can share the love with Letha’s Youth Outdoors Fund, which is part of the Indiana Native Plant and Wildflower Society, or INPAWS. The fund aims to get school-age children in touch with nature, especially those with the least access to experiences in natural areas. Grants pay transportation and naturalists’ fees for visits to Indiana’s wild places and fund youth-initiated projects that get kids excited about the natural world.
The fund honors Letha Queisser, who died in 2007. For more than 20 years, the trained botanist and avid wildflower fan took neighborhood children on nature walks to a nearby Indianapolis park. Since the fund was founded in 2008, more than $40,000 in grants have been awarded, enabling nearly 12,000 youth to visit environmental education centers, nature preserves and parks under the guidance of trained specialists and enthusiastic volunteers. Donate online, or mail a check to INPAWS, Attention: Letha’s Fund, P.O. Box 501528, Indianapolis, IN 46250.
Marian University’s Friends of Riverdale is raising $1.5 million to restore the Jens Jensen-designed colonnade and arbor near Allison Mansion. The university never had the funds to replace these Riverdale features because the base of the structure needs to be reinforce to support the columns, plus the weight of the arbor and plants.
To donate, go to marian.edu and click on Give Now. The colonnade is not a listed project, but donors can choose “other” and write in the comments “colonnade.” Or, send a check with colonnade in the memo to Deb Lawrence, Marian University, 3200 Cold Springs Road, Indianapolis, IN 46222,
Random Acts of Flowers opened in October in Indianapolis, one of five centers in the country. It recycles flowers from weddings, funerals and other events. The goal is to improve the emotional health and well being of individuals in health care facilities by delivering recycled flowers, encouragement and personal moments of kindness. For details on donations of vases, flowers or money, visit randomactsofflowers.org.