December 2015

Tis the season for live or fresh-cut trees

Live Christmas trees can be planted in the landscape to memorialize the holiday and family fun and joy. ©gpointstudio/

Live Christmas trees can be planted in the landscape to memorialize the holiday and family fun and joy.

The seasonal shopping season has begun, and if a Christmas tree is on your list, here are some things to keep in mind.

A live evergreen tree is sold in a container or as a balled-and-burlapped specimen. It is alive and attached to its roots. People like living Christmas trees because they can be transplanted to the landscape to memorialize the holiday.

If you plan to have a live tree, prepare the planting hole now before the ground freezes. Dig the hole and stow the soil in a wheelbarrow or tub in an unheated garage or other area where it will not freeze. To prevent people or pets from tripping or falling into the hole, fill it with bags of leaves or cover with a piece of wood.

Keep the tree outdoors until close to the holiday. Keep the container or balled-and-burlapped root ball moist. Move the live tree indoors and set in something that holds water. A plastic or metal tub works well for balled-and-burlapped, or a large saucer for a container tree. Only allow the tree to be indoors for a couple of days and move it outside. Do not let the root ball dry out.

When ready to plant, remove the tree from the container or burlap and cage. Transplant in the hole, making sure the root flare, or where the trunk becomes a root, is at the soil surface. Back fill with the stowed soil. Water the new planting. If the hose is already put away, carry room temperature water in 5-gallon buckets to drench the soil.

Cover the planting area with chopped leaves or shredded bark mulch. Don’t allow the mulch to touch the trunk. Apply about 10-15 gallons a week, until the ground freezes.

Cut tree

A Christmas tree cut at the farm,  ready for you to take home and decorate. Cut trees also can be found at garden centers. (C) jatrax/

A Christmas tree cut at the farm, ready for you to take home and decorate. Cut trees also can be found at garden centers. (C) jatrax/

Planted and grown as a crop, a cut tree is harvested from a farm. Farms have trees already cut or you can cut your own ( Garden centers also have wide selections of cut trees. These are usually trucked in from Michigan or the Carolinas, where growing Christmas trees is a huge business.

Before putting it in its stand, cut another inch off the stump to ensure the tree will take up water. Keep the stand filled with water.

After the holiday, lash the tree to another tree or to a fence, where it can serve as a winter shelter for birds.

Here are more tips on selecting and enjoying your Christmas tree.


Fun to say, Honorine Jobert anemone looks good in the garden, too

'Hononrine Jobert' is the 2016 Perennial Plant of the Year. Photo courtesy

‘Hononrine Jobert’ is the 2016 Perennial Plant of the Year. Photo courtesy

One of the best plants in the late blooming garden has been voted the 2016 Perennial Plant Association’s Plant of the Year.

The winner is ‘Honorine Jobert’, a Japanese anemone (A. x hybrida), which blooms from late July into September or October in the Indiana garden. The 2-3 inch-wide flowers are pure white and upward facing atop sturdy, wiry stems.

This deer-resistant plant will be 3-4 feet tall with about a 2-foot spread. Plant in full sun to part shade in moist, organically rich, well-drained soil and ‘Honorine Jobert’ will dazzle you in the garden or as a delightful cut flower. The foliage of Japanese anemone may burn in really dry, hot weather, so try not to let the plant dry out.

“Certainly, one of my favorites of the hardy, fall-blooming anemones,” said Irvin Etienne, horticulture display coordinator at the Indianapolis Museum of Art and a board member of the Perennial Plant Association. “Tall, graceful, and tough as nails. I love the single white flowers dancing high above the rest of the fall garden. And I love the name, too. I just like saying ‘Honorine Jobert’.”

Although breeders, growers, educators and others voted it the 2016 Perennial Plant Association’s Plant of the Year, ‘Honorine Jobert’ has been around a while. It is synonymous to ‘Alba’ Japanese anemone, and was found in a Verdun, France, garden in 1858, according to Missouri Botanical Garden.

“As with all the fall-blooming anemones, remember part of Honorine’s toughness includes its robust growth. Don’t plant next to weak-growing plants, because she will push them aside,” Etienne said.

It spreads by rhizomes, so if it gets too assertive where it’s not wanted, it can easily be pulled from the soil. For winter interest, the seed heads dry to form what looks like cotton balls atop the wiry stems. Cut the plant back to the ground in late fall or early spring.

This perennial is widely available at garden centers and through online retailers.

‘Peppermint Stick’ celery is as yummy as its name

‘Peppermint Stick’ celery lives up to its name with a sweet, intense flavor. Photo courtesy Ball Horticultural Co.

‘Peppermint Stick’ celery lives up to its name with a sweet, intense flavor. Photo courtesy Ball Horticultural Co.

Each year, I try growing something new, and this year, it was celery. Celery was never on my list, but in spring, Ball Horticultural Co. sent me a new variety, ‘Peppermint Stick’ (Apium graveolens), to trial.

I planted it in the ground and pretty much ignored it, except for watering and a little granular, organic fertilizer. It could also be grown in a large container. I don’t know when I’ve had an easier, no-fuss, no-muss vegetable plant to grow. ‘Peppermint Stick’ is not your ordinary-tasting celery.

“I didn’t expect the sweetness and flavor. I loved the big crunch, too,” said Jolene Ketzenberger, who tasted ‘Peppermint Stick’ celery for her program, Eat, Drink Indy Radio on

“But while it’s great raw, it also holds its flavor when cooked. I’d love to see what chefs could do with this variety. I’m envisioning a dish that plays up that sweetness and crunch,” Ketzenberger said.

The folks at Ball Horticultural Company describe the taste as “pretty intense. More of an herb celery for finishing a dish,” said Katie Rotella, a marketing communicator at Ball. “It’s not a typical peanut-butter-and-celery snack. My product manager likes to say it’s the perfect size as a swizzle stick in his bloody Mary drinks.”

‘Peppermint Stick’ celery can be grown in a pot or in the ground. Photo courtesy Ball Horticultural Co.

‘Peppermint Stick’ celery can be grown in a pot or in the ground. Photo courtesy Ball Horticultural Co.

‘Peppermint Stick’ gets its name from the look of the stalks, which are dark green with a reddish cast. The name also aptly describes its sweet, intense flavor. The leaves are delicious, too.

This celery can be grown from seed, harvested in about 100 days after sowing; or, as plants, which need about 80 days from planting to harvest. Look for transplants early in spring, likely marketed under the Burpee Home Garden brand. Celery plants will not hold well in the small nursery pot at the garden center. Plants and seed also should be available from mail order retailers.

There was a definite difference in taste between the older stalks and the newest ones. Just as you’d expect, older stalks were stringier, chewier and lacked the intensity of newer stalks.

Celery is one of those foods that, when I buy it, I ask myself, should I just throw it away now or wait a few weeks until it’s spoiled? With how easy ‘Peppermint Stick’ was to grow, I might make celery a staple in my vegetable garden. That way, I can harvest the stalks as needed throughout the growing season and not worry about any of it spoiling.

Chemicals and bee safety

Annuals, such as cosmos, purchased or grown from seed, have not been treated insecticides that harm bees. © ND Petitt/

Annuals, such as cosmos, purchased or grown from seed, have not been treated insecticides that harm bees. © ND Petitt/

Shortly after my Sept. 13 column about a renewed appreciation for bedding annuals, I got a letter from reader J.D, expressing concern that I recommended buying the plants.

“Most, if not all, annuals are being treated by the growers with systemic insecticides that are toxic to pollinators. Retailers do not know or will not tell if the plants they are selling have been treated,” she wrote.

Gardeners are right to be concerned about the impact of pesticides on bees and other pollinators. The ones causing the most worry are commonly called neonics, short for neonicotinoides. Neonics are systemic insecticides, which move through all parts of the plants, including pollen and nectar. They were considered a pesticide breakthrough, because of how they work on insects, and because they are less toxic than other products on the market

I checked with various growers in central Indiana who sell to independent garden centers. And, I contacted the folks at Ball Horticulture Co., the parent company for many seed and plant brands, including Pan American Seed and Burpee, and a representative of the Home Garden Seed Association.

Gardeners will be relieved to know that none of the growers or seed producers contacted use neonics on their plants.

“At Ball, seed for our flowering annual bedding plants is not treated with neonics, and our production farms for vegetative cuttings, like Ball FloraPlant and Selecta, have been neonic-free since last shipping season,” said Katie Rotella of the marketing communications department at Ball Horticulture Co.

“Spraying neonics on flowering annuals right before they go to market is not a common practice,” she said. “And garden centers are demanding any products be clearly labeled if any neonics have been applied.” Her example was Home Depot, which labels plants that have been treated.

“Seed producers depend on bees,” said Patricia Buskirk, one of the country’s largest producers and packagers of seeds, and a member of the Home Garden Seed Association. “Why would we risk harming them? Annual plants – tomatoes, peppers, bedding plants, lettuce, and most of the other plants home gardeners grow from seed – do not benefit from neonics.”

A few months ago I made similar calls regarding the use of neonics on perennials, trees and shrubs. “No, we don’t use any products that contain neonicotinoides,” said Bill Ward, a salesman at Brehob Nursery, Indiana’s largest wholesale grower.

Willoway Nursery, a large grower in Ohio that supplies independent garden centers in Indiana, does use the chemical “sparingly, as needed, to control some insects.  We have to pass inspection and to do that we have to be free of pest and disease,” said Danny Gouge, marketing manager at Willoway.

“We have seen incredible public pressure on this topic,” said Joe Bischoff, director of government relations for AmericanHort, a large trade association of growers, nurseries, retailers and others.

AmericanHort has extensive research projects under way to learn about neonics affect on pollinators and to explore alternative pesticides. Besides the horticulture industry, the Environmental Protection Administration and other government agencies also feel the heat, he said.


  • You will not find neonic-treated seeds on any retailer’s shelf or from mailorder or online retailers. Most, if not all growers, do not treat annuals with neonics. Many do not treat perennials.
  • As the debate continues about whether neonics should or should not be allowed in agricultural settings, homeowners need to be aware of their own pesticide use, Buskirk said. A case study by Xerces Society showed that homeowners can apply 12 to 16 times the amount used in an agricultural setting. Use pesticides only when necessary, and according to package directions.
  • Continue to ask garden center staffers what the plants they sell are treated with. If they don’t know, ask them to find out.
  • Express your concern about the use of pesticides that are toxic to bees and other pollinators.

To learn more:

Death to DST. Long live morning!


I’m so glad we’ve seen the end of Daylight Saving Time in Indiana for a few months. It’s light at 7 a.m. What a concept!

I guess it’s really not DST and changing the clocks back and forth as much as the time zone we are in. Indiana lies west of the line of demarcation between Eastern and Central time zones. The dividing line is in Ohio. Because we are beyond the western edge of this line, daylight doesn’t really take hold until about 8 a.m. when it’s DST, and night stays lit up until 9:30 or 10 p.m. We lose our mornings, which is terrible for an a.m. person.

Originally posted Nov. 1, 2009.

See previous posts about this topic:

Disruptions with Daylight Saving Time

I Hate Daylight Saving Time

November garden checklist


  • Houseplant growth will slow so apply less fertilizer and water.
  • Move plants closer to windows or to sunnier exposures if plants are dropping leaves.
  • Potted hyacinth.

    Potted hyacinth.

    Pot up spring-flowering bulbs with tips exposed to force blooms indoors. Moisten soil and refrigerate 10 to 13 weeks. Transfer to a cool sunny location and allow an additional three to four weeks for blooming.

  • Continue to keep poinsettias in complete darkness from 5 p.m. to 8 a.m. daily until early December or until red bracts begin to show. For more information, download Purdue University’s The Poinsettia.

General Landscape

  • Mow lawn as needed.
  • Rake or shred large fallen leaves and compost them with other lawn and garden debris. For more information about creating a compost pile, download the pamphlet: Making Compost From Yard Waste from Virginia Tech.

    Toss plant debris from fall cleanup into the compost heap. (C) Fotolia

    Toss plant debris from fall cleanup into the compost heap. (C) Fotolia

  • Continue watering gardens, shrubs and trees if rainfall doesn’t reach an inch or more every week or 10 days. It’s important for plants to go into cold weather with adequate moisture.
  • Erect physical barriers around woody plants and trees if rabbits, rodents or deer are a problem. Metal mesh (1/4-inch) hardware cloth is good for this. Pull mulch away from trunks to discourage rodents from making a winter home there.
  • Remove dead or diseased branches from trees and shrubs.
  • November is the second best month to fertilize the lawn with natural products. Late fall fertilizing with products keeps the lawn green going into winter and boosts encourages it to green up earlier inspring. Always read and follow the label directions of the natural product you use. For more information, visit
  • Prepare new beds now for planting next spring. The soil is usually easier to work in the falland fall-prepared beds allow for earlier plantings inspring. Beds may be mulched with compost, chopped leaves or other organic material during the winter, if desired. Avoid fall tilling when there’s a chance of soil erosion.
  • Continue planting container grown and balled-and-burlapped plants as long asground can be worked and weather permits. Mulch well. Keep watering new plantings until ground freezes.
  • Protect graft union on rose bushes by mounding soil around the plants and adding mulch on top. Wait until after several killing frosts so that plants will be dormant. Plants covered too early may be smothered. Don’t use soil from around the plant. Instead, buy bags of top soil and use that.
  • live-christmas-tree-istock_000002559385Prepare hole if you plan to use a “live” Christmas tree (one that is balled-and-burlapped). Mulch the area heavily to prevent freezing or dig the hole and put the fill in a protected area that won’t freeze, such as a garage or basement. For details, check out Purdue’s Living Christmas Trees for the Holidays and Beyond.

Vegetables and Fruits

  • Continue harvesting vegetables that have not been killed by frost.
  • Clean up and discard fallen leaves and fruit around plants to reduce disease carrier over.


Native wheel bug aptly named

Native wheel bug uses it proboscis to kill prey. (C) Joseph Berger/

Native wheel bug uses it proboscis to kill prey. (C) Joseph Berger/

Last summer while trimming back a shrub, I got stung. It wasn’t a bee, wasp or hornet sting.

I explored the shrub to see what caused the pain and found an insect that looked like it had a wheel on its back. On Google, I typed “bug that looks like it has a wheel on its back” and the answer came back wheel bug (Arilus cristatus). Fortunately,  the sting wasn’t a full-on assault, but rather more like a warning. I definitely felt the jab, and the discomfort lasted about an hour.

“Wheel bugs look other worldly,” said Jim McCormac, author, photographer, speaker and blogger. “The sight of a fully grown adult (wheel bug) is sure to get a reaction from anyone who sees it.” McCormac, a botanist with Ohio Division of Wildlife, wrote about wheel bug on his blog Oct. 21, after finding a second one on his garage wall.

The native wheel bug is a member of the assassin bug group – quick, efficient and deadly to prey. This steam punk bug, at nearly 1½ inches long, has a killer proboscis.

With lightening speed, the bug jabs the proboscis into its victim. The proboscis pumps in chemicals, which quickly disable the prey and turn its insides to slush, which the wheel bug sucks out, he said.

“That’s an efficient proboscis: combination killing needle and drinking straw,” said McCormac. On his website, you can find a video of wheel bug dispatching prey and sucking out its innards. Although the jab can be quite painful to humans, it is not deadly.

McCormac says it’s been a good year for wheel bugs. He has noticed they have a taste for brown marmorated stink bugs, and reports finding fewer of the exotic, cilantro-scented insects in his Columbus, Ohio, home. He wonders if the wheel bugs are exploiting the exotic stink bugs as a food source and impacting their numbers. One can hope, he said. Yes, we can.


(Since this column was filed, INPAWS has closed registration for the annual conference, because the venue is filled to capacity. I apologize for any inconvenience. Check the INPAWS website frequently for announcements of the 2016 conference and other events and programs.)

McCormac is among the speakers at “Bioscaping: Gardening for Life,” the Indiana Native Plant and Wildflower Society’s annual conference, Saturday, Nov. 14 at IUPUI. He will talk about “Butterflies and Moths: Their Darker Side.”

“This is Indiana: The Historic Hoosier Landscape Prior to 1816,” is the topic of Mike Homoya, a botanist with Indiana Department of Natural Resources, and author of “Orchids of Indiana.” Kevin Tungesvick, a restoration ecologist, will speak on “A Dangerous Precedent: The Mounds Reservoir Proposal.”

Popular speaker Doug Tallamy, author of Bringing Nature Home and co-author of The Living Landscape: Designing for Beauty and Biodiversity in the Home Garden, will address “Rebuilding Nature’s Relationship at Home.” His co-author, Rick Darke, will give two presentations: “Looking at the Layered Landscape, and Designing” and “Maintaining the Living Landscape.”

Television shows and movies frequently get it wrong

Poison ivy. Photo courtesy

Poison ivy. Photo courtesy

In the NCIS episode ‘Viral’ aired Oct. 27, 2015,  McGee tells Bishop to be careful because the area they are investigating (outside Washington, D.C.) is covered with poison oak. The California-based writers probably don’t realize that poison oak is much more common in the western part of the United States and poison ivy is more likely the culprit in the eastern half of the country.

Yes, there’s an Atlantic poison oak, but it is still less common than good old poison ivy. My suggestion to writers is to check with a knowledgeable garden writer or horticulturist when talking about plants.

The column below was written March 7, 2007 on a similar observation about plants and television shows.

The other night I was watching an episode of House, a program about a cantankerous and frequently rude hospital physician who gets by with his bad behavior because he has some of the best diagnostic skills around.

The fictional teaching hospital is in a fictional town in the real state of New Jersey. House, who has a profound limp ironically from a blood obstruction that went undiagnosed for several days, walks with a cane.

In this episode, House was grousing because his handicapped parking space was moved a bit farther away from the hospital door to accommodate another physician with a disability that required she use a wheelchair to get around.

Adding to his difficulties was the winter season. The ground was covered with snow. Except the trees and shrubs. They still looked their summer best, full of green leaves. Ah, fake snow.

Even worse seasonal offenders have been two episodes of Men in Trees, which takes place in the fictional town of Elmo, Alaska. This series is about Marin, a life-love coach and best-selling author who chucks her life in New York City for the wiles of the wild. The love interest, Jack, is a biologist-naturalist, who rescues the transplant from raccoons and other wildlife.

In one episode last fall, Jack tossed dried leaves into a fire contained in 55-gallon drum. A naturalist would never burn leaves like that. Worse still, a few weeks ago, Marin bought a house and Jack gave her a tree as a housewarming gift. The season was winter, snow knee deep on the frozen ground, wind whistling through the large conifers, and Marin digs a hole and plants the tree. How unreal is that?

I know all of this is fictional and we’re supposed to forget reality and become immersed in the show and what the characters are doing. But when there are such obvious flaws, it jars you right back to the living room couch.

No matter what town a story takes place, on the outskirts it looks like the golden, dusty hills of California. Crossing Jordan, a show about a Boston forensic pathologist, looks like California every time the docs leave the lab.

Only Law & Order’s episodes look like winter when it’s supposed to be winter in New York City. You can even see the actors’ breath when they talk. That’s because the episodes are filmed there.

You’d think with all the emphasis on reality shows and the advancements of graphics technology, the producers would make more of an effort to make the scenes look real. Everything and everyone else is made up, why not the landscape?

Thanks for letting me vent. I feel better.

Tips for keeping leafy goodness in your garden

A mulching mower turns leaves into a soil amendment. © Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp

A mulching mower turns leaves into a soil amendment. © Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp

The city has announced its schedule for fall leaf collection and gardeners have some decisions to make. Will you rake and bag? Mow? Chop? Or, compost your own leaves to make your own soil amendment?

Instead of incinerating our leaves, the Department of Public Works composts them in wind rows through winter and makes the resulting soil amendment available for us to pick up in spring.

Leaves will be picked up Nov. 9 through Dec. 4. For availability of compost in spring, call the Southside Landfill, 317-247-6808.

Composted leaves are one of the best things we can use in our gardens. If you don’t want to bag the leaves for pick up, you have a few other options for keeping that leafy goodness on your property.

  • With a mulching mower, mow the leaves that fall on your lawn. It may take a couple of passes to chop the leaves, but that is still less time that raking and bagging. By mowing the leaves and leaving them on your lawn, you can eliminate at least one application of fertilizer for the lawn. Leaving your grass clippings on the lawn during the mowing season also eliminates at least one application of fertilizer. These practices save money and time.
  • Use the grass catcher on your mower to collect the chopped leaves and bag those for pick up. Or, dump the chopped leaves as winter cover on your vegetable bed or as mulch around perennials, trees and shrubs. As the chopped leaves break down, they add nutrients to the soil and improve its overall quality. Mother Nature’s gift to the gardener.
  • Start your own composting operation for leaves. You can have an enclosed area or you can create a pile of leaves. Either way, you don’t really have to do anything except to let nature takes its course. Over the winter months, the leaves – either whole or chopped – will break down. Chopped leaves will break down more quickly. The end product is rich compost that can be used anywhere in the garden as a soil amendment or mulch. Again, it’s free.

Whatever method you decide to use, remember not to let the leaves accumulate on the lawn. Leaves smother the grass, and if left all winter, may encourage fungus disease in the lawn.

Prime time for planting spring-blooming bulbs

Color Blends mixes miniature daffodils (Narcissus) with blue-blooming squill (Scilla) and glory of the snow (Chionodoxa) to create the perfect for a long-lasting, woodland combo. Photo courtesy

Color Blends mixes miniature daffodils (Narcissus) with blue-blooming squill (Scilla) and glory of the snow (Chionodoxa) to create a long-lasting, woodland combo.
Photo courtesy

Gardeners are nothing, if not hopeful. And one of our signs of hope is the fall planting of spring-blooming bulbs: Tulips, crocus, daffodils, hyacinths and alliums to name a few.

For the showiest display, plant the largest bulbs you can find. The best selection can be found in the bulk bulb boxes at garden centers and at online retailers. I’ve always had good luck ordering from,,,, and If you haven’t ordered or purchased bulbs yet, do so soon while there’s still a good selection.

Smaller bulbs, such as most of those sold in packages, are good for naturalizing. Or, use them as “hamburger helper,” mixed in with the larger bulbs to extend the planting.

If you live where there’s deer pressure, remember that tulips are a favorite snack. Squirrels like tulips, too. Squirrels also like to dig up crocus and other smaller bulbs, so plant some for yourself and some for the critters. Daffodils are usually not bothered by deer or rodents. They also tend to be very reliable bloomers in the Indiana garden.

Even though you buy bulbs now, don’t be too quick to plant them. Late October and into November are better times, perhaps finishing up around Thanksgiving. You want the bulbs planted at least four weeks before the ground freezes.

In general, plant the bulbs about three times deeper than they are tall. If the bulb is 2 inches tall, plant it at least 6 inches deep. It’s better to plant too deep than too shallow. Plant bulbs in clumps or clusters rather than single file. There’s no need to use bulb fertilizer or bone meal because the bulbs are already packed with next year’s blossoms.

Be sure to water the newly planted bulbs. If you are worried about the bulbs being dug up by squirrels, place chicken wire over the planting area and secure it with lawn staples. Throw a little mulch or chopped leaves over the chicken wire.

There’s almost always room for a few more bulbs in the landscape. So plant some, and you’ll have something to look forward to next spring.