Virginia bluebells enhance the spring scene then totally disappear without a bit of cleanup. © Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp
This post was published here originally April 25, 2009.
At the heart of the season are spring ephemerals, plants that are here for a few weeks and then they are gone. One of my favorites is Virginia bluebell (Mertensia virginica), a native plant in the Eastern United States, which is in bloom now into May.
One of the best ways to get ideas for your landscape is to go on a garden tour. This spring there are several to get the creative juices flowing, whether looking at new plant combinations or how a pathway runs through a landscape.
Garden tours are rain or shine, so be prepared and wear comfortable shoes. They are self-directed. Once you buy a ticket, you get info about the gardens, including their location. Garden tours allow us to peek at some of the most beautiful landscapes in town. Here’s the rundown:
June 3-5, Meridian-Kessler Home & Garden Tour. No information available at publication time on the number of properties on the tour or highlights. Usually, this event is more about the homes than gardens. Ticket: $15.
June 8, Indianapolis Garden Club Garden Walk has five gardens lined up for its daylong event, from a Meridian Revival to Shady Neighbors. Ticket: $35; luncheon at Woodstock Club, $25. Proceeds support several garden club civic activities, including Benjamin Harrison Presidential Site, Eskenazi Health Sky Farm and Crown Hill Cemetery
June 11, Eagle Creek Garden Tour. This inaugural tour benefits the Eagle Creek Park Foundation. Highlights include an Eagle Creek Reservoir waterfront with a classic British heritage design; a whimsical Brownsburg hideaway; and an Eagle Creek Nursery designed landscape in Golden Hill. The tour’s centerpiece is Eagle Creek Park’s Earth Discovery Center. Ticket: $20; $15 for foundation members.
June 11-12, Indianapolis Hosta Society Summer Garden Tour. Eleven juried gardens are on this tour, which is preparation for the 2017 American Hosta Society convention in Indianapolis. Ticket: $20; tour limited to 300 people.
June 18, Gardens of Zionsville. Six gardens are on the tour. Ticket: $15 in advance; $20 day of tour. Area vendors prepare containers, which are up for bid.
June 25-26, Shalom Garden Tour. Seven themed, Boone County landscapes are featured: pool garden, railroad garden, cottage garden, fruit and vegetable garden, wedding garden, Japanese maple garden, and country garden. Tour proceeds benefit Shalom House in Lebanon, which provides services and free meals for needy Boone County residents and for its Kids’ Sack Lunch program. Ticket: $10 in advance; $12 days of tour.
June 26, Irvington Garden Club Tour. Benefits the garden club and its work at the historic Benton House and other Irvington-area beautification projects. Usually includes six to eight gardens. Ticket: $10.
Irvington gardener Amy Mullen covered her cherry tree during the recent freezing temps. Photo courtesy Amy Mullen/fradulentfarmgirl.com
Mother Nature has not been kind the last couple of weeks.
Warmer-than-normal temperatures teased flowering shrubs, fruit trees, Japanese maples, perennials and other plants out of their winter sleep to create an early spring. Then, colder-than-normal temperatures put a stop to the whole process, but not before taking a toll on some plants.
Perennials that had their newly emerged leaves beaten back by the wind and cold will likely be fine. They have a lot of time to replenish any damaged foliage. The same with Japanese maples and other deciduous trees.
Flowering shrubs, such as viburnum, quince and big-leaf hydrangea, may have had their flowers frozen or damaged. The blooms may be missing this year, but will likely return next spring.
The blooms of fruit trees, such as cherry, likely took a hit during the recent freezing temperatures. If the center of the flower is black, there will be no fruit this year. If it’s green, there may be hope. Photo courtesy Amy Mullen/fradulentfarmgirl.com
The greatest loss will likely be fruit trees that were flowering and grapes.
Irvington resident Amy Mullen, who blogs at the fraudulentfarmgirl.com, said she’s pretty sure she won’t get cherries this year, even though she covered her trees. She thinks the cover worked the first couple of nights. But she said there were three problems.
- The coverings really should have reached all the way to the ground to trap radiant heat coming from the ground.
- We had such strong winds that keeping the covers in place was difficult, and a couple of times the twine I used actually damaged branches. Even if those things hadn’t been issues, the covering-the-tree thing really only buys you 2 to 5 degrees of protection.
- So, when temperatures dropped to the mid-20s, I gave up on cherries for the year.
“If this happens again, I’ll try watering around the tree before the frost, which is supposed to give you about 5 degrees of protection, and stitching more sheets onto my patchwork cover, so it will reach the ground and I can peg it in place,” said Mullen, who is a landscape designer at Spotts Garden Service. “These techniques work for frost, but they don’t do much good when there’s really strong wind or temps drop below about 27 degrees,”
Her apple, nectarine, peach and plum trees were not in bloom, so they likely were not damaged, but Mullen and other gardeners won’t really know the extent of freeze damage until trees leaf out and fruit fails to form.
Mother Nature will have her way.
Deer dined on the leaves of Annabelle hydrangea. (C) Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp
If deer like your plants as much or maybe even more than you do, you should be taking the offensive as soon as plants start to grow.
There are two basic ways to keep deer, rabbits and other critters away from our tulips and tomatoes: exclusion and repellents.
Exclusion is a fence, which can be effective, but unsightly. It needs to be about 8 feet high to keep deer out. There are metal and plastic fence materials. With plastic, make sure the grid is small or large enough so that birds don’t get trapped.
Repellents can be a granular or liquid. Animals are repelled by the scent or by the way plants taste. With the taste one, the animal has to take a lick or bite before the repellent works.
Most of the liquid repellents smell gross to humans, and like granular products, may need to be reapplied after a rain, so be sure to read and follow the label directions to ensure the best protection of your plants.
Wireless Deer Fence is made by a veterinarian and engineer in Indiana. Photo courtesy wirelessdeerfence.com
A third option is Indiana-designed and made, Wireless Deer Fence (wirelessdeerfence.com). Each kit contains three, dark green 19-inch posts, each fitted with an attractant. The posts are place strategically in the landscape, the attractants draw in the deer and the batteries provide a shock to its nose, encouraging it to find another route.
“You need to be proactive,” said Julia Hofley, a Michigan garden writer and speaker. I heard her speak about “Taking Back Your Garden” last year at a Michigan event.
You need to start using repellents early in the season. Spray the base of emerging plants, especially tulips, hosta, hydrangeas and daylilies, Hofley said. Plants also need to be treated as they grow. She recommends Plantskydd, which was developed in Sweden to protect plants from moose and elk.
Granted, moose and elk are not a problem in Indiana, but deer, rabbits, squirrels, voles and opossums may be. Plantskydd, which means plant protection, does not work on skunks, raccoons, woodchucks or moles.
I have been using the granular Plantskydd to control the chipmunks, which had started to burrow under my garage. I’ve seen no chippers around the garage, and fewer of them in my yard in general, which is fine with me.
Plantskydd carries the Organic Material Review Institute, or OMRI logo, which means it’s approved for use in growing organic food and fiber. It’s also safe for use around pets. The product emits an odor that animals associate with predators, prompting a fear response, causing them to avoid the area.
An overhead light ensures tomato and other seedlings will stay squatty and fat. © Carol Michel/maydreamsgardens.com
April is prime season for starting seeds indoors, especially tomatoes, peppers and eggplant. On the herb list, there’s basil, cilantro and parsley.
For the exact starting times, review the seed packet instructions. The seeds for these plants are sown usually in early to mid April. Starting too early means you’ll have to support the plants with the appropriate light, water and fertilizer until the vegetables or herbs can be planted outdoors, which is usually mid May. The packet also tells us how long it takes for the seeds to germinate.
When first-timers start out sowing seeds indoors, they don’t always realize the supplies they need. “Study up on what you need and then jump in. Gardening is a craft, and you need supplies,” said Dee Nash, author of The 20-30 Something Garden Guide: A No-Fuss, Down and Dirty, Gardening 101 for Anyone Who Wants to Grow Stuff.
The seeds are primed to germinate, so sprouting them is usually not a problem. The greatest challenge is having enough light once seeds have germinated, she said in an interview. Seedlings that don’t get enough ambient light will stretch and in general, be weak plants.
“You definitely need a light table and heated mats to be very successful, especially with certain vegetables, such as eggplants. They like heat mats. Trying to just start seeds in the window is harder. You can do it, but you might as well invest in a few lights and heat mats,” said Nash, who blogs at reddirtramblings.com.
Seedlings, such as these tomatoes, which do not have enough light, will stretch, causing weak stems. © Pencho Tihov/Dreamstime.com
To solve the light issue, Nash built a light table with a metal shelving unit, fluorescent ultraviolet grow lights and heat mats. “Once I did that, I’ve had no trouble starting seeds. However, if you don’t want to go that big, you can start with one light, one heat mat and a grounded plug in. We use a grounded power strip to plug in all of our lights. Mine is four tiers, but you can start smaller,” she said.
People also need to remember to water the seedlings, she said. “If you miss several days watering, the plants will die.”
Seeds best sown directly in the soil outdoors when the temperature is right: peas, beans, lettuce, spinach, dill, fennel, squash, cucumbers and carrots.
Seeds best started indoors for transplanting outdoors when the temperature is right: tomato, pepper, eggplant, melon, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli and basil. Start cilantro indoors, but then sow seeds directly outdoors every few weeks, beginning in mid June. Cilantro goes to seed (called bolting) when it gets hot. The seeds are coriander.
Potted hydrangeas are forced into bloom and best appreciated as a short-term spring plant in a pot. © Marina Lohrbach/123rf.com
This time of year, potted hydrangea and azalea are popular gifts. Unintentionally, these gifts come with guilt. That’s because a lot of recipients don’t know what to do with these plants and people feel compelled to keep them alive forever.
Allow me to assuage you guilt.
These plants are grown in a greenhouse and forced into bloom for the season. Think of them as a short-lived commodity, like a bouquet of flowers. You would not think about planting the bouquet outdoors. You’d just enjoy it while the flowers looked good, then tossed them in the compost pile (or trash) when they faded.
The potted hydrangea, with its big mophead flowers, is commonly called a florist hydrangea or hortensia (H. macrophylla var. macrophylla). Plant it in a pot by itself or with cool-season annuals, such as pansies or violas. Place the pot on a step or in a flowerbed for the spring season. The blooms may be damaged by long periods of below freezing temperatures. Full sun may speed up the aging of the blooms. Keep the soil moist, but not sopping wet.
Even though it is rated as winter hardy, it suffers the same fate as many other big leaf (macrophylla) hydrangeas in Indiana. The flower buds frequently are killed by spring temperatures, resulting in a lovely green-leafed shrub with no blooms. I’m not saying these can’t be wintered over, but it’s a lot of worry and as an unreliable bloomer, not worthy of space in my garden.
Enjoy the frost tender, potted azalea as a houseplant. © Robert Byron/123rf.com
The potted azalea (Rhododendron simsii) is a tender relative of the azaleas and rhododendrons we grow in our gardens. It is bred for its large, long lasting flowers, which may be lavender, peach, pink, red or white. Some are bicolor. Potted azaleas can be found at other times during the year, such as Mother’s Day.
Place the potted azalea in an area with bright light and cool temperatures, and it will bloom for about a month. The soil should be moist, but not wet. If you’re up to the challenge of getting it to rebloom, this azalea needs about 60 days of temperatures in the 40-55 degree range in winter for it to set flower buds.
You might be able to get more information if the plant came with a tag that gave the cultivar name. However, most people enjoy this as a short-term houseplant. It can be moved to a sunny spot outdoors where its glossy, dark green leaves will look nice in a pot with summer annuals, then tossed at the end of the season.
Lilies of all types are poisonous to cats, including the beautiful white Eastern lilies we got for the holiday.
Eating just one or two flower petals or leaves can trigger kidney failure and frequently death in cats within a few days. Cats also can be poisoned if they lick pollen-laden paws. If you think your cat has ingested any part of a lily (Lilium), contact your veterinarian immediately.
Beside Easter lily, the family includes tiger lily, rubrum, Asian, Oriental, Martagon and species. Although a different species, daylilies (Hemerocallis) also are poisonous to cats. Calla lilies (Zantedeschia) are not.
City Gardener Program
If you’ve just moved into your first house with a yard and you are unsure of what to do with the lawn, trees and, oh, you might like to have a vegetable or flower garden, then the City Gardener Program is for you.
The Purdue Extension-Marion County City Gardener Program was developed in 2002 for new or inexperienced gardeners. It covers a variety of gardening topics and has a focus on gardening in urban areas.
The 2012 program, which began April 11, offers six Wednesday classes, and you can attend as many as you like. A certificate is awarded to those who attend all six.
Here’s the schedule and topics for the remaining sessions: April 18, Vegetable Gardening Basics; April 25, Pests and Pest Management; May 2, Growing Flowers; May 16, Grass Selection; and May 23, Tree and Shrub Planting. April 11 covered How Plants Grow.
Each class will be 6:15 to 8:15 p.m. at the Marion County Extension office, Discovery Hall, Suite 201, Indiana State Fairgrounds, 1201 E. 38th Street. The fee is $5 per session or $20 for the six classes. You do not have to pay to park to attend these classes.
For more information or to register, visit the Website or contact Debbie Schelske, firstname.lastname@example.org, (317) 275-9286.
‘Branford Beauty’ fern earned five stars for its performance during plant trials at the Chicago Botanic Garden. Photo courtesy perennialresource.com
The Chicago Botanic Garden has released its six-year evaluation of lady ferns and Japanese painted fern (Athyrium spp.). This group of ferns is among the most elegant, yet utilitarian plants for the shade garden, said Richard Hawke, who heads up the evaluation program at the Glencoe, Illinois, botanic garden.
Victoriae lady fern earned five starts in the CBG evaluations. Photo courtesy Missouri Botanical Garden/mobot.org
Two of my Japanese painted ferns, ‘Branford Beauty’ and ‘Pewter Lace’, were among 13 to receive five stars. ‘Branford Beauty’ is a clump grower and ‘Pewter Lace’ (Athyrium niponicum var. pictum) is a spreader. Among native lady ferns, (A. felix-femina), the sometimes hard-to-find ‘Victoriae’ earned five stars.
If you’ve grown these ferns, you know they are not always the most vigorous, especially when it gets hot and especially dry. It’s not uncommon for them to go dormant during hot, dry spells, frequently reviving in late summer and fall as weather moderates. The botanic garden saw first hand how these ferns handle less than desirable conditions with the loss of a huge shade tree that left the bed in sweltering afternoon sun.
Among other challenges, browsing by rabbits, and fence eventually was built around the test plot to keep out the critters.
The ferny, lance-shaped fronds are perfect companions to the bolder and broader leaves of other shade-loving plants, such as hosta, lungwort (Pulmonaria spp.) and coral bells (Heuchera spp.). I love the way the way Japanese painted ferns look with silvery-purple coral bells. “Crown injury or plant losses in winter were uncommon and infrequent occurrences during the trial,” Hawke wrote in his evaluation.
The purple-veined Japanese painted fern is a good companion with silvery-purple coral bells. This combination also camouflages the ripening foliage of grape hyacinths and other spring bulbs. © Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp
‘Branford Beauty’ is between a lady fern and a Japanese painted fern in its form and habit. “The upright habit and fine-textured leaves of this hybrid resemble the lady fern, while the colorful arching and curved fronds are like Japanese painted fern,” he wrote. ‘Branford Beauty’ also was more uniformly silver green.
The fronds of ‘Pewter Lace’ “emerged purple, but aged silver-green with purple highlights on the lower portion of the pinnae along the purple rachis. The irregularly arched fronds and mounded habit were comparable to other cultivars. No rabbit damage, drought stress, or scorch was observed during the trial,” Hawke wrote in the report.
Hawke said gardeners and landscapers appreciate athyrium’s feathery textures and fronds of many colors, which contrast and complement other perennials. Grow them in moist, well-drained soil in full to part shade. Water during dry spells.
Pretty N Sweet peppers, a 2015 All-America Selection. Photo courtesy All-AmericaSelections.org
The International Herb Association has declared this the year of the pepper and the Herb Society of Central Indiana decided to celebrate.
Peppers were featured at the group’s meeting earlier this month and again, April xx at the annual conference. It also will be planted in the herb garden at White River Gardeners, where members have been volunteering since 2001, said Sue Arnold, a founding member of the Herb Society of Central Indiana.
Peppers (Capsicum annuum) also will be growing in Arnold’s garden in Brownsburg. “I have a history of growing lots of hot peppers and I competed in the Chili Cookoff for years. I have a trophy in the basement from winning the most popular people’s choice chili,” said Arnold.
This year, she’s started seeds for Pretty N Sweet hybrid, a 2015 All-America Selections winner that I grew last year. It can be grown in the ground or in a container.
This was probably the easiest pepper I’ve ever grown, very prolific and very ornamental, something AAS calls “ornamedible.” The conical-shaped, tasty peppers are red, yellow, orange and greenish, 1-1 ½ inches long. A plant will have about 100 sweet peppers, each weighing an ounce.
Pretty N Sweet was also was a favorite at the AAS Demonstration Garden maintained by Marion County Master Gardener at the Indiana State Fairgrounds, said Steve Mayer, horticulture educator at Purdue-Marion County Extension.
“I also have six other varieties of peppers seeds to plant. I’ll try to protect from the deer,” Arnold said.
Grow peppers in full sun. Don’t rush to plant them outdoors because peppers like warm soil and warm ambient temperatures. Also, practice patience. Peppers need a long, hot, period for fruit to mature for harvesting. For Pretty N Sweet, you can start picking about 60 days after planting transplants.
The Herb Society of Central Indiana’s 2016 spring symposium, Pepper Your Life with Herbs, will be 9 a.m. to 3:15 p.m., April 9, at the Hamilton County 4H Fairgrounds, Noblesville. The public is invited.
Indiana Flower & Patio Show
This weekend begins the eight-day run of the 58th annual Indiana Flower & Patio Show at the Indiana State Fairgrounds. This year, the theme is Tall, Dark and Awesome. The show ends March 20.
Jonathan Wright has been named the Ruth Lilly Deputy Director for Horticulture and Nature Resources at the Indianapolis Museum of Art. Photo courtesy IMA
The opportunity to work at a world-class art museum committed to making its gardens a priority lured Jonathan Wright from the country’s gardening mecca to the Indianapolis Museum of Art.
Wright was named the Ruth Lilly Deputy Director for Horticulture and Nature Resources at the Indianapolis Museum of Art, succeeding Mark Zelonis, who retired last December after 18 years. He started the first week of March.
The IMA is somewhat unique in the world of horticulture because of its mix of properties. Wright was particularly attracted to the diversity of gardens: the Olmsted-designed Oldfields; the IMA’s gardens and grounds; 100 Acres, the Art and Nature Park; and the Kiley-designed Miller House and Garden in Columbus. Wright comes to the IMA from Chanticleer Garden in Wayne, Pennsylvania, where he was a horticulturist for 12 years.
“I wasn’t looking for a job when I got the call,” Wright said in a phone interview shortly after he moved to Indianapolis. “But it was so exciting. There’s an Olmsted landscape, Kiley and 100 Acres (designed by Marlon Blackwell and Edward L Blake). That was really exciting to me to be a part of all these different styles of gardens. We’re going to take them to the next level.”
The mid-century modern Miller House and Garden in Columbus and Oldfields, an American County Estate, are on designated National Historic Landmarks. He said he didn’t know of any other museum with the rich diversity of historically significant landscapes.
A graduate of Temple University, the Longwood Gardens’ Professional Gardener Program, and the Getty Leadership Institute’s Next Generation Program, Wright has extensive experience at gardens throughout the United States and England.
“I feel Jonathan Wright has the vision, knowledge and creativity to provide strategic direction and leadership to establish the IMA as one of the preeminent public garden and urban ecosystem destinations in the country,” said Charles Venable, the Melvin and Bren Simon Director and Chief Executive Officer at the IMA, in a press release.
“Most of Jonathan Wright’s work experience and training have been in former private gardens now open to the public,” said Bill Thomas, executive director and head gardener at Chanticleer. “Jonathan has a great eye for design and a sensitivity to the individual site, both of which he has developed well here at Chanticleer. I expect to see great things from him and the talented staff of the Indianapolis Museum of Art.”