- Yellow warbler nests in Indiana. (C) Ryan Sanderson
The holidays are with us, so here are some books that I liked and recommend for the gardeners and nature lovers on your list.
For Midwest gardeners:
“Shrubs Large and Small: Natives and Ornamentals for Midwest Garden” by Moya L. Andrews and Gillian Harris (Indiana University Press, paperback, $28). Beautifully illustrated by Harris, the guide helps with the selection and placement of shrubs, including those planted for birds and other wildlife. Harris is past president of the south-central chapter of the Indiana Native Plant and Wildflower Society and Andrews is retired dean of the faculties at I.U.
“Got Sun? 200 Best Native Plants for Your Garden” by Carolyn Harstad (Indiana University Press, paperback, $28). With drawings by Jean Vietor, “Got Sun?” continues Harstad’s series especially written for the Midwest. Harstad, who now lives in Minnesota, is a founder of the Indiana Native Plant and Wildflower Society.
“Butterflies of Indiana: A Field Guide” by Jeffrey E. Belth (Indiana University Press, paperback, $20). Belth relies on his expert knowledge and observational skills, along with more that 500 color photos to help us identify 149 species of Indiana’s winged beauties.
Of course, to have more gardens, we need to reduce the lawn, and two authors have addressed that problem.
“Beautiful No-Mow Yards 50 Amazing Lawn Alternatives” by Evelyn Hadden (Timber Press, paperback, $24.95) has been a best seller since its release. This lawn liberation guide offers design ideas and plant recommendations to turn grassy areas into flowerbeds, shrub islands and more.
“Lawn Gone! Low Maintenance, Sustainable, Attractive Alternatives for Your Yard” by Pam Penick (10 Speed Press, paperback, $23.99). Penick stresses what resource guzzlers American lawns are each year — 300 million gallons of gasoline, 1 billion hours of work, 70 million pounds of pesticides and $40 billion in upkeep. The book contains dozens of suggestions on how to help the environment and your pocket.
And once you have gardens, you’ll notice the birds, including the illusive warblers.
“The Warbler Guide” by Tom Stephenson and Scott White (Princeton University Press, paperback, $29.95). In the birding world, warbles are among the most challenging to find. They are here only twice a year during migrations, there are many of them and several look a lot alike and they tend to be tiny and hang out in the tops of trees. This guides helps us find and recognize them and their calls.
Wind storm Nov. 17, 2014 felled a tree in Carmel, Ind. Photo courtesy Vine and Branch
Hurricane force winds tore through central Indiana last week, wreaking havoc on buildings and trees.
We usually have insurance for structures and possessions, but not for trees. We know that mature trees increase property values by thousands of dollars, but what are they worth if they are damaged? The Hoosier Gardener posed some questions to Jud Scott, a certified consulting arborist and owner of Vine and Branch Inc., in Carmel, Ind.
Q. Is it possible to get insurance for trees?
A. Yes, there is a company, HMI (www.moneygrowsontrees.com), which is trying to establish an insurance program for trees. Right now it is a warranty program. Currently, a homeowner does not seem to have much coverage, only minimal debris removal or lightning damage.
Q. How is the value of a tree determined?
A. Purdue University’s pamphlet “Tree Appraisal” is helpful, but property owners need to be careful, so as to not over value the tree. It still needs to relate to property value because it is part of the real estate.
Market value is tough, as it means you have to have a market. Timber value may be low, firewood even lower.
Q. With an “act of God,” what protection, if any, is there for people whose tree falls and damages someone else’s property?
A. Act of God is a concept that is interesting. It used to be the catchall for natural causes, but lately, it seems someone is always considered for blame.
The property owner has a “duty to inspect” and be informed about a tree’s overall health. Certified arborists are trained to help with this. If a property owner knows a tree is damaged, diseased or dangerous and does nothing, he or she may be liable for any damage.
Scott also reminds us about being careful when cleaning up nature’s mess. Be sure a fallen limb or tree is not on a power line. Be aware of chainsaw kickback and spring back from pruning poles.
“Finally watch out for scammers. Get a certificate of insurance. Guys that stop by in a beat-up, old truck looking for work should be a clue (to be cautious),” Scott said. “Arboricultural companies are swamped and rarely knock on doors.”
Ok. I confess. I’m a leaf thief. I have been for years, targeting one neighbor who faithfully chopped and bagged his leaves and left them at the edge of his property. Every fall, I’d drive my car four houses away, load the trunk, back and front seats with bags of leaves and return home.
When that neighbor moved away, I had to widen my territory. Now, I scour the ‘hood looking for bagged leaves, especially those that already have been chopped.
This year, a friend offered me chopped leaves and I immediately said yes to six bags of probably one of the best gifts from nature.
When I get home with the leaves, I have several options.
When chopped, I can add leaves directly to the soil in new or existing garden beds. This fall, I’m mixing leaves into the vegetable bed and layering some on top. This effort will result in improved soil quality.
Chopped leaves serves as mulch over newly planted spring-blooming bulbs or as a topdressing in other garden beds. If beds have bark mulch, move it aside and ring perennials, shrubs and trees with the chopped leaves, then replace the mulch.
If the leaves are not chopped, I line them up near the compost pile. As I add food scraps to the pile, I can cover them with leaves.
Bagged leaves can be left to break down through winter, creating a form of leaf mold. This is like the fluff you find on the ground under layers of leaves in woodlands and forests. This can be mixed in beds or as a top dressing around plants in spring.
Sometimes, I dump whole leaves on the ground and run over and bag them with my electric mulching mower. Some people will put whole leaves in a garbage can and chop them with a string trimmer. Others may have chipper shredders to process whole leaves. Be sure to wear eye protection when using any of these methods.
Is the effort worth it? Absolutely. We’re recycling and reusing a natural gift and improving our garden. What can be better than that?
Chopped leaves are one of the best things to add to new or existing garden beds. Here, they are getting mixed in the vegetable bed. (C) Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp
- Native dogwood colors the view from the inside out. (C) Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp
Several of my BFF on Facebook have been commenting on the gorgeous fall colors this year.
The reds, yellows, golds and bronzes have been slow coming despite an ideal October. The rains late in the month seemed to have hastened and intensified the season.
The conversation on Facebook soon shifted to which season has the most color: spring or fall?
Certainly, fall colors are intensely saturated. They cover the view, from the fallen leaves on the ground to colored foliage on trees and shrubs made all the more striking by an incredible blue sky. In spring, the pastel and primary colors of bulbs and early emerging perennials punctuate the verdant shades of greens. Maybe because I was born in fall, I find the colors of the season comforting. Spring colors are uplifting.
Native dogwood in spring. (C) Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp
For whatever reason, some of the plants in my landscape have not received their fall-color orders.
The green leaves on ‘Sike’s Dwarf’ and ‘Pee Wee’ oakleaf hydrangeas (H. quercifolia) have not turned their wine red color of fall and winter. The foliage on Summer Wine ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius ‘Seward’) is as purple as ever without a touch of fall’s fire red.
The ‘Princeton Sentry’ ginkgo (G. biloba) leaves remain green. When they turn gold, the distinctive fan-shaped leaves, practically all at once.
What does have color? The spireas, including Snow Storm (Spiraea x media). This 3 foot tall and wide shrub has beautiful blue leaves in summer, large lacecap white flowers in early spring and fiery red-gold leaves in fall.
Similar in size is Glow Girl spirea (Spiraea ‘Tor Gold’), which also has white flowers, but lemon-lime foliage in summer, which turns golden red in fall. I think gardeners frequently overlook spireas as a source of late season color.
The intense, red leaves of the native dogwoods (Cornus florida) are spectacular inside and outside my picture window. Their fall color and spring flowers reinforce why we sometimes plant for the inside to outside view, whatever the season.
A bouquet to celebrate a retirement sits on the kitchen counter. (C) Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp
Gardeners are lucky. We always have gifts at the ready. We only have to trek to the yard and snip a few flowers, branches, bulbs, seedheads, leaves, evergreen boughs and other pieces of nature to turn into a bouquet.
I love giving bouquets as gifts. Sometimes I provide the vase (which I usually want returned) and sometimes I just give the bouquet.
The bouquet is an easy hostess gift for my foodie friends when I’m invited to a dinner party. When doing garden presentations, I frequently cut bouquets to give away at the end of the session to someone who correctly answers a question posed from the talk. I have a talk, Snippets from the Garden, which covers whatever is going on in my landscape that day.
Sometimes for no reason, I’ll drop off a bouquet to family or friend. I’ll take one to the credit union or the doctor’s office or dentist. Bouquets make a nice birthday gift. They are perfect to take to a sick friend or hospitalized colleague.
In the past week, I gave a bouquet to a friend who invited me to a dinner party at her house. I left one on my sister’s porch to greet her when she returned from her last day of work, retiring after decades on the job.
For the two bouquets this week, I purchased a few stems from a local florist, including annual blue statice (Limonium) and locally grown yellow celosia (C. cristata). From my own garden, I cut a couple of dried flowers from White Dome hydrangea (H. arborescens ‘Dardom’) and pinkish-white blooms from ‘Limelight’ hydrangea (H. paniculata). Snipped a pink mum and white mum to fill it out and voila! A bouquet to celebrate retirement.
When I do the classes and head out to cut a bouquet, I frequently stand in the yard thinking there’s really not much to cut. But after a few minutes, I’m pleasantly surprised to have enough for a bouquet. My theory is if it lasts a few days in a vase, it’s a cut flower. And to go from thinking I have nothing to having a bunch of beautiful blooms is just plain satisfaction. When spreading a little cheer with bouquets, don’t forget to cut one for yourself.
More than likely, the Hoosier Gardener’s dog dug up two of the large, late-blooming fragrant hostas. Photo courtesy PerennialResource.com
Just the other day, I realized there were plants missing in action this past summer.
A beautiful, drought-tolerant anise hyssop ‘Apache Sunset’ (Agastache rupestris) did not show up. It was planted at the edge of the driveway, close to a birdbath and a trellis, where honeysuckle grows.
I liked the sunset colors of the reliable, long-blooming flowers and the fine, blue green foliage with its minty fragrance. The hummingbirds and bees liked this perennial, also. I started it from seed probably 10 years ago.
The glossy red berries of late Dutch honeysuckle disappeared along with the plant. (C) Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp
One of the anise hyssop’s companion plants, a honeysuckle vine, also disappeared. The late Dutch honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum ‘Serotina’) did not show up this year. I planted it three years ago because it does not get powdery mildew like my other honeysuckle (L. x heckrottii ‘Goldflame’), which gets defoliated by the fungus disease and survived.
The late Dutch honeysuckle is fragrant like ‘Goldflame’, but the season extending attributes I wanted are the beautiful, glossy red fruit, which lingered well into winter.
Tricyrtis pokes its orchid-like blooms through the variegated foliage of Cool Splash, a native bush honeysuckle, in the shade garden. © Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp
In the shade garden, the toad lilies (Tricyrtis) didn’t even make it a full year. These were planted among the hosta because toad lilies offer orchid-like blooms late in the season.
Lastly, two large, tough, fragrant hosta (H. plantaginea) did not return. These were planted years ago in an area that stays pretty dry, so it’s possible that there was not enough moisture. Or, it could be they were dug up by the dogs on the hunt for chipmunks.
It’s also possible that the toad lilies disappeared because the dogs trample through that bed chasing squirrels.
For the honeysuckle and anise hyssop, though, I’m guessing the problem is the birdbath. The plants were right where I emptied the birdbath in winter, probably keeping the soil too wet.
Hummingbirds and bees love the drought tolerant, ‘Apache Sunset’ anise hyssop. Photo courtesy PerennialResource.com
It’s always hard to know exactly why plants fade away. Plants have a lifespan, just like people. Some, such as trees and peonies, outlive the gardener. Others, such as tulips (Tulipa), pincushion flower (Scabiosa) and daisies (Leucanthemum x superbum), tend to be short-lived perennials.
The lesson? We don’t always know why plants die, but it’s all right if they do. It’s one of the ways we learn about gardening. I’ll give all of these a second chance in my yard, too.
Remove the bottoms of water jugs to make cloches. Hold the jugs in place with a stick. (C) Fotolia/John Braid
As we grow more of our own food, we want to know how we can push the weather envelope and harvest carrots, spinach and other vegetables for Thanksgiving.
Protecting vegetables from the cold can be as simple as adding a little extra mulch around plants or as elaborate as a heated greenhouse. There are lots of steps in between, too.
Straw and leaves
Tuck loose straw or leaves around spinach and other leafy crops. Apply straw or leaves atop carrots, onions and radishes. Create a barrier around plants with straw bales or bags of leaves. Cover the open area with a row cover or thick clear plastic sheets.
About as inexpensive as straw or leaves are cloches — inverted pots, plastic jugs with the bottoms cut out or glass domes. These protect smaller plants in spring and fall. Think of a cloche as a mini greenhouse. Remove unvented cloches during the day. Cloches are particularly useful in spring to cover seedlings and get a jump on the season.
A row cover, made of plastic fabric, will keep plants five to 10 degrees warmer than the outside ambient temperature. (C) Fotolia/Eag1e
A floating row cover is made of polyester or polypropylene. The fabric allows air, light and rain to penetrate. Hoops suspend the fabric 12 to 18 inches above the plants. It keeps the area under the cloth 5 to 10 degrees warmer than the ambient temperature.
Use PVC pipe or other similar material to form the hoops. Secure the hoop by placing the end in a slightly larger PVC pipe that has been pounded in the ground at the edge of the garden bed. If the hoop pipe is 1-inch diameter, use 1 ¼ or 1 ½ inch diameter pipe in the ground. Secure the material by stuffing it in the ground pipe with the hoop pipe.
Hold hoop house plastic or row cover fabric in place with PVC pipe.
Use an a couple of layers of opaque plastic, 4 to 6 millimeters thick, to create a hoop house, which can be about any height. The construction is the same as row cover. A hoop house usually extends the growing season by six to eight weeks in fall and spring.
• University of Illinois Extension Season Extenders
• Johnny’s Selected Seeds
• Guerney’s Seed & Nursery Co.
Redbud seedlings. (C) Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp
The adage that a weed is just a plant out of place certainly holds true in my yard, when plants show up where I don’t want them. Here are some common examples:
The Eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis) is a fast-growing, native, ornamental tree with pink flowers in spring and pale yellow, heart-shaped leaves in fall. A prolific seeder, seedlings show up everywhere and anywhere. They are hard to pull and dig out. Best time for the job is early spring when the soil is moist.
Virginia creeper. (C) Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp
I can’t tell you how many times I’ve slipped a plastic bag on my arm to pull Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), thinking it was a young poison ivy plant. This native climbing and trailing vine starts out with three leaves and within a few feet, takes on the more familiar Virginia creeper, five-leaf form. The leaves turn a beautiful deep red in fall. It blooms in summer, followed by fruit, but I’ve never noticed either. This is good for camouflaging fences or climbing a trellis, but not creeping through the garden bed. Pull anytime and keep pulling where it’s not wanted.
Hackberry seedling. (C) Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp
Common hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) has rough leaves arranged alternately along the branch. Seedlings of this native plant are easy to spot because of their arched form. Cut back to the ground or dig out.
Mulberry. (C) Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp
White mulberry (Morus alba) seems to have a fast-growing stranglehold on my neighbor’s side of the fence, no matter how much I whack it back. Unlike the native red mulberry (Morus rubra), the Asian introduction can readily be found in urban areas. It is likely spread by birds that eat the fruit, which despite its white mulberry moniker, is red.
Tree of heaven. (C) Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp
Tree of heaven
When I was a kid, we called this a stink tree and today, it sometimes is called a ghetto palm. However, tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima) seems to be its most common nickname. Tolerant of sun or shade, this fast-growing tree from China is very tough, a prolific seeder and hard to get rid of. Keeping it chopped back will eventually starve it out. If small, dig it out. If large, you’ll probably have to hire an arborist to take it down.
- Brown marmorated stink bugs has bit appetites for apples, cayenne pappers, bean, tomatoes and more. Photo courtesy John Obermeyer/Purdue University
For the past month, I’ve been consumed with brown marmorated stink bugs. I’ve repurposed newspapers into swatting machines, killing more than 100 on the outside of my house and 10 inside on my screened-in porch.
I’m pretty observant in my garden and I did not notice any of these Asian invaders last year. So, in my world, it’s gone from zero to hundreds of mini-shielded, cilantro-stinking bugs in a year.
After online research and interviewing experts about the brown marmorated stink bug, called BMSB for short, I know the worst is yet to come. Our homes will be inundated by these bugs, and so will our tomatoes, green beans, corn, apples and just about everything else in the garden. In the next 10 years, we could be talking billions. (I wrote about this insect in The Indianapolis Star, Oct. 8.)
The BMSB (Halyomorpha halys) is not harmful to people or pets, but it emits an unpleasant, cilantro-like smell when disturbed. And, although a nuisance because the bugs want to winter in our homes, it’s a much more serious pest for gardeners and farmers. The brown marmorated stink bug nymphs and adults are equally damaging to crops, said John Obermeyer, a Purdue University entomologist.
Nymph of brown marmorated stink bug. Photo courtesy John Obermeyer/Purdue University
We can caulk our windows and doors and make sure to plug any cracks or crevices where you can see daylight in our homes. In the garden, though, protection is more challenging. Scientists are frantically trying to find a way to control this destructive pest, but right now there are no natural enemies.
Trap crops, row covers and lure traps help, but there’s still a lot that’s not known. Lure traps (Rescue is one brand), armed with pheromones, are quite effective at capturing nymphs and adults within a 30-foot range. They are usually left up from spring through fall to trap as many of the insects as possible.
If you see BMSBs, your county extension office wants to hear from you.
Indiana map where BMSB have been found
U.S. map where BMSB have been found
News and updates about BMSB
All about BMSB from the Entomological Society of America/Rutgers University
Tips for controlling brown marmorated stink bugs
A white pumpkin, assorted gourds and Spanish moss with faux leaves and berries in a container on a sheltered porch. (C) Jo Ellen Meyers Sharp
As we perform our fall cleanup chores, save a few items for use in late season and winter containers.
Right now, you can use seed heads of perennials, snippets of ornamental grass, twigs, a pumpkin or a few gourds and maybe a mum or pansy for a pot of fall beauty.
Spray paint the twigs to match the trim on the house. Pumpkins, too, come in other colors besides orange, including white, yellow-green and green. And the gourds, with their gnarly or warted skins are just plain fun.
You can always supplement with artificial fall leaves or stems of faux berries for a little more pizzazz.
Stow some of nature’s fall bounty for use in a winter container, too. Dried hydrangea flowers, ornamental grass flowers or foliage, red or yellow-stem dogwood, birch branches and willow stems are all good choices. For a winter arrangement, fill in as needed with evergreen boughs and other greenery from a garden center or perhaps a friend’s landscape.
Fall-planted lilies shine in the summer garden
We all know about planting tulips and daffodils in fall for spring blooms. But there are lovely summer-blooming bulbs to plant in fall, too.
Asiatic, oriental and orienpet lilies (Lilium) are always worth a little space in the perennial garden.
Asiatics bloom in early summer and come in many colors. These are usually 10 to 24 inches tall and have trumpet-shaped flowers. Oriental and a new group called orienpet lilies are worth having if only because of their fragrance. These also can get pretty tall, up to 5 or 6 feet, depending on the variety. Really tall ones may need to be staked, or plant them amid companion plants that will help support the lilies.
Foxtail lily (Eremurus 'Stenophyllis'). Photo courtesy longfield-gardens.com
Most of these lilies are winter hardy throughout Indiana. Plant lilies where they get morning sun or where they get filtered afternoon sun. Most do well in average soil, but prefer it to be well drained.
A lot of gardeners are unfamiliar with the foxtail lily (Eremurus), which blooms in very late spring to early summer. These have 30-inch stalks topped with pink, white, cream or yellow flowers. Hardy to USDA Zone 5, plant these in full sun and well-drained soil.
Lilies and foxtail lilies also are terrific cut flowers for indoor enjoyment.